JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Changes of Index Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria of Korean Fermented Vegetables (Kimchi) During the Ripening and Fermentation-Part 2
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Changes of Index Microorganisms and Lactic Acid Bacteria of Korean Fermented Vegetables (Kimchi) During the Ripening and Fermentation-Part 2
Kim, Jong-Gyu ; Yoon, Joon-Sik ;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The Chinese cabbage kimchi, baechoo-kimchi, is the most popular type of kimchi in Korea. This study was performed to investigate the changes of index microorganisms (aerobic bacteria, psychrotrophilic bacteria, coliforms, and Escherichia coli), lactic acid bacteria, pH, and acidity of kimchi during the long-term fermentation and ripening. A homemade-style traditional Korean baechoo-kimchi, was prepared from Chinese cabbage, red pepper, green onion, garlic, ginger, and salt-fermented anchovy sauce, and then incubated at for 28 days. In the baechoo-kimchi, the number of aerobic bacteria increased with time. The number of psychrotrophilic bacteria maintained their numbers in the kimchi during the fermentation. Coliforms and E. coli were not detected in the kimchi. The pH of kimchi decreased and the acidity of kimchi increased over time. Lactic acid bacteria, which are representative of fermentative microorganisms in the kimchi process showed rapid growth in the earlier stage of fermentation and increased steadily after 7 days. The counts of lactic acid bacteria were at a level of early in the fermentation stage, reaching a level of after 14 days, and at this point pH was 4.18 and acidity reached 0.63, indicating that the optimal state of kimchi fermentation. This study suggests that the lactic acid bacteria which were proliferated in kimchi during the ripening and fermentation could contribute to improving the taste and flavor of kimchi and inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms that might exist in kimchi.
 Keywords
Kimchi . index microorganisms . lactic acid bacteria . pH . acidity
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Alakomi, H.-L., Skytta, E., Saarela, M., Mattila- Sandholm, T., Latva-Kala, K. and Helander, I. M. : Lactic acid permeabilizes gram negative bacteria by disrupting the outer membrane. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 66(5), 2001-2005, 2000 crossref(new window)

2.
Albrecht, J. A., Hamouz, F. L., Sumner, S. S. and Melch, V. : Microbiological evaluation of vegetable ingredients in salad bars. Journal of Food Protection, 58, 683-685, 1995

3.
Ampe, F., ben Omar, N., Moizan, C., Wacher, C. and Guyot, J. P. : Polyphasic study of the spatial distribution of microorganisms in Mexican pozol, a fermented maize dough, demonstrates the need for cultivation-independent methods to investigate traditional fermentations. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 65, 5464-5473, 1999

4.
AOAC International : Official Methods of Analysis, 18th ed., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, 28.1.29, 2005

5.
Beuchat, L. R. : Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables. Microbes and Infection, 4, 413-423, 2002 crossref(new window)

6.
Beuchat, L. R.: Pathogenic microorganisms associated fresh produce. Journal of Food Protection, 59, 204-216, 1996

7.
Caplice, E. and Fitzgerald, G. F. : Food fermentation: role of microorganisms in food production and preservation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 50, 131-149, 1999 crossref(new window)

8.
Cheigh, C. I., Choi, H. J., Park, H., Kim, S. B., Kook, M. C., Kim, T. S., Hwang, J. K. and Pyun, Y. R. : Influence of growth conditions on the production of a nisin-like bacteriocin by Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis A164 isolated from kimchi. Journal of Bacteriology, 95(3), 225-235, 2002

9.
Cheigh, H. S. and Park, K. Y. : Biochemical, microbiological, and nutritional aspects of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetable products). Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34(2), 175- 203, 1994

10.
Chung, K. O. : Effects of fermentation on the growth of intestinal pathogens in kimchi, Thesis of Dongguk University, 1994

11.
Doyle, M. P. : Fruit and vegetable safety-microbiological consideration. Hortscience, 25, 1478- 1481, 1990

12.
Escalante, A., Wacher, C. and Farres, A. : Lactic acid bacterial diversity in the traditional Mexican fermented dough pozol as determined by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 64, 21-31, 2001 crossref(new window)

13.
Han, B. R. : The 100 types of our kimchi which we should know. Hyunam-sa, Seoul, 1999 (in Korean)

14.
Hayes, P. R. : Food Microbiology and Hygiene. Elsevier, New York, 24-25, 1992

15.
Kim, D.-H., Song, H.-P., Yook, H.-S., Ryu, Y.-G., and Byun, M.-W. : Isolation of enteric pathogens in the fermentation process of kimchi and its radicidation by gamma irradiation. Food Control, 15, 441-445, 2004 crossref(new window)

16.
Kim, J. G. : Microbiological quality assessment of kimbap according to preparation and cooking condition and identification of critical control points in the processes. Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety, 19(2), 66-73, 2004

17.
Kim, J. G. and Lee, K. M. : Inhibitory effect of Korean fermented vegetables (kimchi) on the growth and aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus- Part 1. Korean Journal of Environmental Health, 33(3), 190-194, 2007

18.
Kim, J. G. and Yoon, J. S. : Changes of index microorganismss and lactic acid bacteria of Korean fermented vegetables (kimchi) during the ripening and fermentation-Part 1. Korean Journal of Environmental Health, 31(1), 79-85, 2005

19.
Kim, M. and Chun, J. : Bacterial community structure in kimchi, a Korean fermented vegetable food, as revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 103(1), 91- 96, 2005 crossref(new window)

20.
Korea Food and Drug Administration (KFDA): Food Code of Korea, 96-105, 2005

21.
Lee, C. H. : Lactic acid fermented foods and their benefits in Asia. Food Control, 8(5/6), 259-269, 1997 crossref(new window)

22.
Lee, C. W., Ko, C. Y. and Ha, D. M. : Microfloral changes of the lactic acid bacteria during kimchi fermentation and identification of the isolates. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 20, 102-109, 1992 (in Korean)

23.
Lee, J. Y. and Kunz, B. : The antioxidant properties of baechu-kimchi and free-dried kimchi-powder in fermented sausages. Meat Science, 69(4), 741-747, 2005 crossref(new window)

24.
Marriott, N. G. and Robertson G. : Essentials of food sanitation, Chapman & Hall, New York, 53, 1997

25.
McMahon, M. A. S. and Wilson, I. G. : The occurrence of enteric pathogens and Aeromonas species in organic vegetables. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 70, 155-162, 2001 crossref(new window)

26.
Meng, J. and Doyle, M. P. : Introduction-Microbiological food safety. Microbes and Infection, 4(4), 395-397, 2002 crossref(new window)

27.
Mheen, T. I. and Kwon, T. W. : Effect of temperature and salt concentration on kimchi fermentation, Korean Journal of Food Science Technology, 16(4), 443-450, 1984

28.
Nguyen-the, C. and Carlin, F. : The microbiology of minimally processed fresh fruits and vegetables. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 34(4), 370-401, 1994

29.
Nout, M. J. R. and Motarjemi, Y. : Assessment of fermentation as a household technology for improving food safety: a joint FAO/WHO workshop. Food Control, 8(5-6), 221-226, 1997 crossref(new window)

30.
Omar, N. B., Ampe, F., Raimbault, M., Guyot, J. P., and Tailliez, P. : Molecular diversity of lactic acid bacteria from cassava sour starch (Colombia). Systematic and Applied Microbiology, 23, 285-291, 2000

31.
Robertson, L. J., Johannessen, G. S., Gjerde, B. K. and Loncarevic, S. : Microbiological analysis of seed sprouts in Norway. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 75, 119-126, 2002 crossref(new window)

32.
Steinkraus, K. H. : Classification of fermented foods: worldwide review of household fermentation techniques. Food Control, 8(5-6), 311-317, 1997 crossref(new window)

33.
Svanberg, U. and Lorri, W. : Fermentation and nutrient availability. Food Control, 8(5/6), 319-327, 1997 crossref(new window)

34.
Yi, J. H., Cho, Y. and Hwang, I. K. : Fermentative characteristics of kimchi prepared by addition of different kinds of minor ingredients. Journal of Korean Society of Food & Cookery Science, 14(1), 1-8, 1998

35.
http://www.kimchi.or.kr

 Related Articles