JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Determination of Phthalate Metabolites in Korean Children`s Urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Determination of Phthalate Metabolites in Korean Children`s Urine by High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Kho, Young-Lim; Jeong, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Kyung-Ho; Kim, Pan-Gyi;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Dialkylated phthalates have been commonly used as plasticizers and a variety of applications. Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants. It is very difficult to exactly estimate the dose of dialkylated phthalates taken up by the general population because of environmental contamination. Urinary metabolites of phthalates enabled to estimate internal exposure. The objective of this study was quantitative determination of phthalate metabolites by LC/MS/MS with on-line cleanup method to analyze phthalate metabolites in Korean children`s urine. We employed LC/MS/MS with on-line enrichment and column-switching techniques for this biological monitoring. Metabolites determined were 4 primary metabolites; MEHP, MnBP, MiBP, MEP and 2 secondary metabolites of DEHP; 5-OH-MEHP), 5-oxo-MEHP. We analyzed children`s urine from 30 boys and 30 girls. The method detection limit of phthalate metabolites were 0.03 ng/mL for MEP, 1.05 ng/mL for MBP, 0.22 ng/mL for MEHP, 0.15 ng/mL for 5-OHMEHP and 0.16 ng/mL for 5-oxo-MEHP, respectively. Switching Column LC/MS/MS was proven to be a useful tool to determine metabolites of phthalate diesters in human urine. The correlation among phthalate metabolites was very high and statistically significant, except MEP. The children`s age (months) was negatively correlated to the concentration of phthalate metabolites. The geometric mean concentration of phthalate metabolites (mg/g creatinine) in children`s urine were 25.5 for MEP, 130.3 for MnBP, 56.8 for MiBP, 19.5 for MEHP, 85.6 for 5-OH-MEHP and 83.1 for 5-oxo-MEHP, respectively. Levels of estimated daily intake of parent phthalate compounds (/kg bw/day) were 0.8 for DEP, 5.0 for DnBP, 1.9 for DiBP and for DEHP, respectively. Estimated daily intake for DEP and DiBP were lower than those of other studies but the value for DEHP was higher than that of other study.
 Keywords
phthalate metabolites;children`s urine;LC/MS/MS;on-line cleanup;estimated daily intake;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
1.
환경대기 중 프탈레이트 화합물의 농도 측정 (I) - 측정방법 평가와 현장 적용 -,황윤정;박영화;서영교;서광교;백성옥;

대한환경공학회지, 2010. vol.32. 5, pp.443-454
2.
Assessment of Di (2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate Exposure by Urinary Metabolites as a Function of Sampling Time,;;;;;

Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 2010. vol.43. 4, pp.301-308 crossref(new window)
3.
DEHP, DEP and DBP Exposure Analysis using Urinary Metabolites of Gyonggi Province University Students,;;;;;;;

한국환경보건학회지, 2013. vol.39. 5, pp.408-417 crossref(new window)
1.
DEHP, DEP and DBP Exposure Analysis using Urinary Metabolites of Gyonggi Province University Students, Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 2013, 39, 5, 408  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark, Environment International, 2014, 63, 77  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Preuss, R., Koch, H.M. and Angerer, J. : Biological monitoring of the five major metabolites of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in human urine using column- switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 816(1-2), 269-280, 2005 crossref(new window)

2.
Fromme, H., Bolte, G., Koch H.M., angerer, J., Boehmer, S., Drexler, H., Mayer, R. and Liebl, B. : Occurrence and daily variation of phthalate metabolites in the urine of an adult population. International Journal of HYgiene and Environmental Health, 210, 21-33, 2007 crossref(new window)

3.
Koch, H.M., Rossbach, B., Drexler, H. and Angerer, J. : Internal exposure of the general population to DEHP and other phthalates-determination of secondary and primary phthalate monoester metabolites in urine. Environmental Research, 93(2), 177-185, 2003 crossref(new window)

4.
Becker, K., Seiwert, M., Angerer, J., Heger, W., Koch, H.M., Nagorka, R., Ro${\beta}$kamp, E., Schlüter, C., Seifert, B. and Ullrich, D. : DEHP metabolites in urine of children and DEHP in house dust. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(5), 409-417, 2004 crossref(new window)

5.
Silva, M.J., Samandar, E., Preau, J.L. Jr., Reidy, J.A., Needham, L.L. and Calafat, A.M : Quantification of 22 phthalate metabolites in human urine. Journal of Chromatography B, 860, 106-112, 2007 crossref(new window)

6.
Koch, H.M., Gonzalez-Reche, L.M. and Angerer, j. : On-line clean-up by multidimensional liquid chromatography- electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry for high throughput quantification of primary and secondary phthalate metabolites in human urine. Journal of Chromatography B, 784(1), 169-182, 2003 crossref(new window)

7.
Becker, K., Seiwert, M., Angerer, J., Heger, W., Koch, H.M., Nagorka, R., Ro${\beta}$kamp, E., Schlüter, C., Seifert, B. and Ullrich, D. : DEHP metabolites in urine of children and DEHP in house dust. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(5), 409-417, 2004 crossref(new window)

8.
Latini, G. : Monitoring phthalte exposure in humans. Clinica Chimica Acta, 361(1-2), 20-29, 2005 crossref(new window)

9.
Silva, M.J., Slakman, A.R., Reidy, J.A., Preau, J.L. Jr., Herbert, A.R., Samandar, E., Needham, L.L. and Calafat, A.M. : Analysis of human urine for fifteen phthalate metabolites using automated solid-phase extraction. Journal of Chromatography B, 805(1), 161-167, 2004 crossref(new window)

10.
Wittassek, M., Wiesmüller, G.A., Koch, H.M., Eckard, R., Dobler, L., Müller, J., Angerer, J. and Schlüter C. : Internal phthalate exposure over the last two decades - A retrospective human biomonitoring study. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 210(3-4), 319-333, 2007 crossref(new window)

11.
Kato, K., Shoda, S., Takahashi, M., Doi, N., Yoshimura, Y. and Nakazawa, H. : Determination of three phthalate metabolites in human urine using online solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 788(2), 407-411, 2003 crossref(new window)

12.
Silva, M.J., Samandar, E., Preau J.L. Jr., Needham, L.L. a nd Calafat, A.M. : U rinary o xidative metabo - lites of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in humans. Toxicology, 219(1-3), 22-32, 2006 crossref(new window)

13.
Kato, K., Silva, M.J., Needham, L.L. and Calafat, A.M. : Determination of total phthalates in urine by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 814(2), 355-360, 2005 crossref(new window)

14.
Koch, H.M., Drexler, H. and Angerer, J. : Internal exposure of nursery-school children and their parents and teachers to di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP). International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(1), 15-22, 2004 crossref(new window)

15.
Wittassek, M., Heger, W., Koch, H.M., Becker, K., Angerer, J. and Kolossa-Gehring, M. : Daily intake of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) by German children- A comparison of two estimation models based on urinary DEHP metabolite levels. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 210(1), 35-42, 2007 crossref(new window)

16.
Kato, K., Silva, M.S., Reidy, J.A., Hurtz, D. III, Malek, N.A., Needham, L.L., Nakazawa, H.N., Barr, D.B. and Calafat, A.M. : Mono (2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate and mono (2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl)phthalate as biomarkers for human exposure assessment to di-(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate. Environment Health Perspectives, 112(3), 327-330, 2004

17.
Koo, H.J. and Lee, B.M. : Human monitoring of phthalates and risk assessment. Journal of Toxicological Environmental Health, Part A, 68, 1392, 2005

18.
Takatori, S., Kitakawa, Y., Kitagawa, M., Nakazawa, H. and Hori, S. : Determination of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate in human serum using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography B, 804, 397-401, 2004 crossref(new window)

19.
Taylor, J.K. : Quality assurance of chemical measurements, CHelsea, MI: Lewis publishers, 1987

20.
NIOSH : Guidelines for air sampling and analytical method development and evaluation (DHHS[NIOSH]) Pub. No. 95-117, Cincinnati, OH: NIOSH, 1995

21.
OSHA : Evaluation scheme for methods that use filters as collection medium. In OSHA analytical manual, 2nd ed. Salt Lake City: OSHA, 1990

22.
Fromme, H., Gruber, L., Schlummer, M., Wolz, G., B?hmer, S., Angerer, J., Mayer, R., Liebl, B. and BolteIn, G. : Intake of phthalates and di(2-ethylhexyl) adipate: Results of the Integrated Exposure Assessment Survey based on duplicate diet samples and biomonitoring data. Environment International, 33(8), 1012-1020, 2007 crossref(new window)

23.
Itoh, H., Yoshida, K. and Masunaga, S. : Evaluation of the effect of governmental control of human exposure to two phthalates in Japan using a urinary biomarker approach. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 208(4), 237-245, 2005 crossref(new window)