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Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Public Bath in Jongno-gu, Seoul
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 Title & Authors
Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Public Bath in Jongno-gu, Seoul
Kim, Mi-Soon; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Seong-Keun; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Ji, Kyung-Hee; Oh, Ji-Yoon; Ko, Ki-Dong; Ko, Gwang-Pyo;
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The aim of this study is to investigate microbial sanitary condition of public baths in Seoul, Korea. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 14 different public baths and sudatoriums. The prevalence of fecal indicator microorganisms such as total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli was characterized. In addition, bacteria in water was membrane filtered by 0.45um nitrocellulose membrane, and the filter was analyzed by both cultivation and PCR amplification of partial 16S rRNA gene. The levels of chlorine were measured for each of water samples. More than 40% of 14 collected water samples, the concentrations of total coliform bacteria exceeded the water quality for bath water guideline. There was no significant correlation between chlorine residue and the presence of total coliform. Various microorganisms including pathogenic microorganisms were identified from cultivation and subsequent analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Our results suggest that appropriate hygiene practice and continuous monitoring is needed for reducing health risk associated with public bathhouses.
public bathhouse;microbial water quality;fecal indicator microorganisms;fecal coliform;E. coli;chlorine;16S rRNA gene;
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