Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Public Bath in Jongno-gu, Seoul
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Investigation of Microbial Contamination of Public Bath in Jongno-gu, Seoul
Kim, Mi-Soon; Lee, Young-Min; Kim, Seong-Keun; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Ji, Kyung-Hee; Oh, Ji-Yoon; Ko, Ki-Dong; Ko, Gwang-Pyo;
  PDF(new window)
The aim of this study is to investigate microbial sanitary condition of public baths in Seoul, Korea. A total of 28 water samples were collected from 14 different public baths and sudatoriums. The prevalence of fecal indicator microorganisms such as total coliform, fecal coliform, and Escherichia coli was characterized. In addition, bacteria in water was membrane filtered by 0.45um nitrocellulose membrane, and the filter was analyzed by both cultivation and PCR amplification of partial 16S rRNA gene. The levels of chlorine were measured for each of water samples. More than 40% of 14 collected water samples, the concentrations of total coliform bacteria exceeded the water quality for bath water guideline. There was no significant correlation between chlorine residue and the presence of total coliform. Various microorganisms including pathogenic microorganisms were identified from cultivation and subsequent analysis of 16s rRNA gene sequences. Our results suggest that appropriate hygiene practice and continuous monitoring is needed for reducing health risk associated with public bathhouses.
public bathhouse;microbial water quality;fecal indicator microorganisms;fecal coliform;E. coli;chlorine;16S rRNA gene;
 Cited by
서울 약수터의 지표세균 분포 및 16S rRNA 염기서열을 이용한 총대장균군 동정 및 계통분석,윤태호;이향;최금숙;이승주;이목영;어수미;

한국환경보건학회지, 2013. vol.39. 6, pp.513-521 crossref(new window)
먹는물 약수터 장구균의 검출 특성과 반코마이신 내성 현황,윤태호;이향;이승주;여인학;엄석원;

대한환경공학회지, 2010. vol.32. 10, pp.979-985
분자생물학적 방법인 PCR-REBA를 이용한 대중목욕탕 수질 중 수인성병원성미생물 검출,송운흥;최승구;양병선;이재상;

한국산학기술학회논문지, 2011. vol.12. 8, pp.3517-3522 crossref(new window)
Detection of Waterborne Pathogens in Public Bath Houses by PCR-Reverse Blot Hybridization Assay (PCR-REBA), Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 2011, 12, 8, 3517  crossref(new windwow)
Occurrence of Indicator Bacteria and Identification of Total Coliforms Using 16S rRNA Gene in Drinking Spring Water in Seoul, Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 2013, 39, 6, 513  crossref(new windwow)
Korean Statistical Information Service. Available from: Accessed June 9, 2009

Edagawa, A., Kimura, A., Doi, H., Tanaka, H., Tomioka, K., Sakabe, K., Nakajima, C, Suzuki, Y. : Detection of culturable and nonculturable Legionella species from hot water systems of public buildings in Japan. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 105(6), 2104-2114, 2009 crossref(new window)

Favero, M. S. : Whirlpool spa-associated infections: Are we really in hot water? American Journal of Public Health, 74(7), 653-655, 1984 crossref(new window)

Kim, H. K. : The present situation public bathing-house sanitation in Chinju city. Environment Research, 2, 9-18, 1998

Kim, Y. W., Moon, K. H., Lee, J. H., Cho, I. H., Kim, M. R. : Prevalence and serological characteristics of Legionella spp. isolated in public spas. Journal of Health Science & Medical Technology, 30(1), 45-55, 2004

Lee, J. K., Kim, H. S., Lee, E. Y., Choi, I. S., Oh, N. G. : Detection of HBV DNA and HCV RNA in public bath; A study about safety of prolapsed hemorrhoidal patient. The Journal of the Korean Society of Coloproctology, 23(5), 297-304, 2007 crossref(new window)

Surveillance for waterborne disease and outbreaks associated with recreational water. Available from: Accessed June 9, 2009

Marchesi, J. R., Sato, T., Weightman, A. J., Martin, T. A., Fry, J. C., Hiom, S. J., Wade, W. G. : Design and evaluation of useful bacterium-specific PCR primers that amplify genes coding for bacterial 16S rRNA. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 64(2), 795-799, 1998

Water quality criteria for microbiological indicators. Available from: Accessed June 9, 2009

Yoon, T. H., Lee, Y. J., Rhee, O. J., Lee, E. W., Kim, H., Lee, D. C., Kim, S. H. : Heterotrophic bacteria in terms of free chlorine residuals in water distribution systems. Korean Journal of Environmental Health, 28(3), 9-18, 2002

Lee, D. G. : CLPP of biofilm in free chlorine residual and monochloramine. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 31(2), 147-151, 2005

Lee, D. G., Lee, J. H., Lee, S. H., Ha, B. J., Ha, J. M. : Efficiency of different disinfectants against biofilm on carbon steel pipe and carbon utilizing ability of biofilm. Journal of Life Science, 16(4), 579-583, 2006

Hoadley, A. W., Dutka, B. J. : Bacterial indicators. American Society for Testing and Materials International, Pennsylvania, 48-58, 1977

Smith, M. G., Gianoulis, T. A., Pukatzki, S., Mekalanos, J. J., Ornston, L. N., Gerstein, M., Snyder, M. : New insights into Acinetobacter baumanii pathogenesis revealed by high-density pyrosequencing and transposon mutagenesis. Genes and Development, 21(5), 601-614, 2007 crossref(new window)

Bergogne-Berezin, E., Friedman, H., Bendinelli, M. : Acinetobacter biology and pathogenesis. Springer, New York, 129-153, 2008