JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Sampling Efficiency of Organic Vapor Passive Samplers by Diffusive Length
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Sampling Efficiency of Organic Vapor Passive Samplers by Diffusive Length
Lee, Byung-Kyu; Jang, Jae-Kil; Jeong, Jee-Yeon;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Passive samplers have been used for many years for the sampling of organic vapors in work environment atmospheres. Currently, all passive samplers used in domestic occupational monitoring are foreign products. This study was performed to evaluate variable parameters for the development of passive organic samplers, which include the geometry of the device and diffusive length for the sampler design. Four prototype diffusive lengths; A-1(4.5 mm), A-2(7.0 mm), A-3(9.5 mm), A-4(12.0 mm) were tested for adsorption performances to a chemical mixture (benzene, toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane) according to the US-OSHA's evaluation protocol. A dynamic vapor exposure chamber developed and verified by related research was used for this study. The results of study are as follows. The results in terms of sampling rate and recommended sampling time test indicate that the most suitable model was A-3 (9.5 mm diffusive lengths on both sides) for passive sampler design in time weighted average (TWA) assessment. Sampling rates of this A-3 model were 45.8, 41.5, 41.4, and 40.3 ml/min for benzene, toluene, trichloroethylene, and n-hexane, respectively. The A-3 models were tested on reverse diffusion and conditions of low humidity air (35% RH) and low concentrations (0.2 times of TLV). These conditions had no affect on the diffusion capacity of samplers. In conclusion, the most suitable design parameters of passive sampler are: 1) Geometry and structure - 25 mm diameter and 490 cross sectional area of diffusion face with cylindrical form of two-sided opposite diffusion direction; 2) Diffusive length - 9.5 mm in both faces; 3) Amount of adsorbent - 300 mg of coconut shell charcoal; 4) Wind screen - using nylon net filters (11 pore size).
 Keywords
passive sampler;sampling rate;diffusive length;evaluation protocol;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Palmes, E. D., Burton Jr, R. M., Ravishankar, K., Solomon, J. J. : A simple mathematical model for diffusional sampler operation. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 47(7), 418-420, 1986 crossref(new window)

2.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) : Toluene (diffusive sampler) (Method 4000) in NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method (NMAM). 1994

3.
United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) : Volatile organic compounds in air in methods for the determination of hazardous substances. 1997

4.
Pristas, R. : Passive badges for compliance monitoring internationally. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 55(9), 841-844, 1994 crossref(new window)

5.
Ministry of Labor (MOL) : Usability of passive sampler for working environment measurement in question and an swer i n in dustrial health a nd safety law. 2001

6.
Kim, S. K., Yim, B., Jung, E. S., Kim, S. T. : Development and evaluation of a badge-type passive sampler for the measurement of short-term nitrogen dioxide in ambient air. Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 22(1), 117-126, 2006

7.
Yim, B., Kim, S. T. : Evaluation of an ammonia passive sampler using chamber system. Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment, 22(E1), 1-8, 2006

8.
Yim, B ., J un g, E . : Badge-type d iffusive s ampler using 3-Methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone for measuring formaldehyde in indoor air. Analytical Science, 22(7), 993-997, 2006 crossref(new window)

9.
Kim, S. T., Yim, B., Jung, J. : Development of a passive a ir sampler for the measurement of indoor formaldehyde. Analytical Science, 23(4), 497-500, 2007 crossref(new window)

10.
Byeon, S. H., Park, C. J., Oh, S. M., Lee, C. H. : The sampling efficiencies of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the diffusive monitor with activated carbon fiber. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 6(2), 187-201, 1996

11.
Paik, N. W., Park, M. J., Yoon, C. S. : Evaluation of commercially available passive samplers and development of n ew passive s amplers. P art 1: Evaluation of commercially avaliable passive samplers. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 6(1), 109-124, 1996

12.
Paik, N. W., Kong, S. H., Park, J. I., Lee, Y. H. : Evaluation of commercially available passive samplers and development of new passive samplers. Part 2: Development of new passive samplers. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 6(1), 97-108, 1996

13.
Cho, S. J., Paik, N. W. : Field comparison of korean diffusive sampler and charcoal tube methods for determination of organic vapors. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 7(1), 33-48, 1997

14.
Paik, N. W., Yoon, C. S. : Field evaluation korean passive sampler for organic vapor. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 8(1), 124-132, 1998

15.
Ministry of Labor (MOL) : Occupational Safety and Health Law. Threshold limit Values for chemical Substances and Physical Agents exposure indices. Notice No. 2007-25, 2007

16.
Yi, G . Y., Park, D. Y ., Jeon g, J . Y. : E ffects of t he pore size of t he p assive s ampler's w in dscreen to the sampling rates. Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 14(2), 125-133, 2004

17.
Lee, B. K., Jeong, J. Y., Yi, G. Y., Kim, B. Y. : Development of standard vapor generation system. 2006 Winter conference of Korean society of occupational and environmental hygiene. Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 102-104, 2006

18.
United Kingdom Health and Safety Executive (HSE) : Protocol for assessing the performance of a diffusive sampler in methods for the determination of hazardous substances. 1994

19.
Cassinelli, M. E., Hull, R. D., Crable, J. V., Teass, A. W. : Protocol for the evaluation of passive monitors. In diffusive s ampling: An alternative approach to workplace air monitoring, A. Berlin, R.H. Brown, and K.J. Saunders (Royal Society of Chemistry, London)(eds.), NIOSH Protocol for the evaluation of passive monitors, 190-202, 1987

20.
Comite Europeen de Normalisation (CEN) : Workplace atmospheres-diffusive samplers for the determination of gases and vapours-Requirements and test methods. (EN 838) Comite Europeen de Normalisation, Brussels, Belgium, 1995

21.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Evaluation guidelines for air sampling methods utilizing chromatographic analysis. Available from:URL:http://www.osha.gov/dts/sltc/methods/chromguide/chromguide.html. 1999

22.
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) : Workplace atmospheres-Protocol for evaluating the performance of diffusive samplers. ISO/TC146/SC2 DIS 16107, 2006

23.
National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) : Hydrocarbons, Aromatic (Method 1501) in NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method (NMAM). 1994

24.
Byeon, S. H., Thomas, H. S., Maria, T. M., Afshar, M., Jay, C. : The effects of face velocity and path length on the uptake rates of volatile organic compounds measured by diffusive samplers. Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, 11(1), 34-41, 2001

25.
Paik, N. W., Park, D. W., Yoon, C. S. : Measurement and evaluation for occupational environment. Singwang press, 1999

26.
Park, M. J., Yoon, C. S., Paik, N. W. : A study on organic solvent measurement using diffusive sampler. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 4(2), 208-223, 1994

27.
Han, J. G., Roh, Y. M., Kim, H. W. : Effects of temperature and relative humidity on the sampling efficiencies of mixed organic vapors measured by diffusion monitors. Korean Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 5(2), 200-211, 1995

28.
Gregory, E. D., Elia, V. J. : Sample retention properties of passive organic vapor samplers and charcoal tubes under various conditions of sample loading, relative humidity, zero exposure level periods and a competitive solvent. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal, 44(2), 88-96, 1983 crossref(new window)