Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Relationship among the Indicator PCBs in Breast Milk and Dietary Habits and Demographic Factors in Women Living in Urban Areas
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Relationship among the Indicator PCBs in Breast Milk and Dietary Habits and Demographic Factors in Women Living in Urban Areas
We, Sung-Ug; Kim, Ki-Ho; Cho, Bong-Hui; Cho, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Cho-Hee; Min, Byung-Yoon;
  PDF(new window)
In this study, breast milk levels of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were estimated, and statistics drawn, for 22 Koreans in the general population, aged 26-38, who had resided in metropolitan areas for more than 5 years without occupational exposure to organochlorine pollutants. Concentrations of indicator PCBs were measured using the isotope dilution method with a high resolution gas chromatograph/high resolution mass detector, which provided accurate and precise data for investigation of trends, and international comparisons. The geometric mean of total indicator PCB levels was 22.3 ng/g lipid, which is significantly lower than the level in individuals from European countries. Overall, the geometric mean and 95th percentile of the most abundant congener PCB 153 were 8.04 ng/g lipid and 16.4 ng/g lipid, respectively. PCB congeners 138, 153 and 180 together accounted for about 75% of the indicator congeners analyzed. Breast milk total indicator PCB concentrations were significantly associated with age and parity, but not with body mass index (BMI), rate of body weight increase, or smoking habits. The geometric mean level of PCB 153 in breast milk from mothers with a pre-pregnant BMI < was significantly higher than in pre-pregnant women with a BMI of (p<0.05). Women who ate more fish, meat, and milk products did not have significantly higher total indicator PCB levels than those who ate less of these products, but a significant difference in PCB 153 levels was demonstrated between the subjects consuming higher (11.45 ng/g lipid) and lower (6.79 ng/g lipid) amounts of fish (p<0.05), after adjusting for confounders. These results suggest that age, parity and fish intake are the important factors affecting the concentrations of indicator PCBs in these subjects.
indicator PCBs;breast milk;dietary habits;breast-feeding;urban areas;
 Cited by
서낙동강 수계 퇴적물 내 PCBs, DDTs, HCHs 및 HCB의 수평적 분포와 잠재적 생태독성 영향 평가,위성욱;윤조희;민병윤;

생명과학회지, 2012. vol.22. 3, pp.332-339 crossref(new window)
Ahlborg, U., Hanberg, A. and Kenne, K. : Risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Report NORD, Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, 26, 1992.

Brouwer, A., Longnecker, M. P., Birnbaum, L. S., Cogliano, J., Kostyniak, P. and Moore, J. : Characterization of potential endocrine-related health effects at low-dose levels of exposure to PCBs. Environmental Health Perspectives, 107, 639-649, 1999. crossref(new window)

Jensen, S. : Report of a new chemical hazard. New Science, 32, 612, 1996.

Macdonald, R. W., Harner, T. and Fyfe, J. : Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data. Science of the Total Environment, 342, 75-86, 2005.

Cerna, M., Maly, M., Grabic, R., Batariova, A., Smid, J. and Benes, B. : Serum concentrations of indicator PCB congeners in the Czech adult population. Chemosphere, 72, 1124-1131, 2008. crossref(new window)

Breivik, K., Sweetman, A., Pacyna J. M., Jones, K. C. : Towards a global historical emission inventory for selected PCB congeners - a mass balance approach. 1. Global production and consumption. Science of the Total Environment, 290, 181-198, 2002. crossref(new window)

Szyrwinska, K. and Lulek, J. : Exposure to specific polychlorinated biphenyls and some chlorinated pesticides via breast milk in Poland. Chemosphere, 66, 1985-1903, 2007.

Glynn, A. W., Wolk, A., Aune, M., Atuma, S., Zettermark, S., Maele-Schmid, M., Darnerud, P. O., Becker, W., Vessby, B. and Adami, H. : Serum concentrations of organochlorines in men: a search for markers of exposure. Science of the Total Environment, 263, 197-208, 2000. crossref(new window)

Wingfors, H., Selden, A. I., Nilsson, C. and Haglund, P. : Identification of markers for PCB exposure in plasma from Swedish construction workers removing old elastic sealants. Annals of Occupational Hygiene Society, 50(1), 65-73, 2006.

EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) : Opinion of the scientific panel on contaminants in the food chain on a request from the commission related to the presence of non dioxin-like PCBs in feed and food. EFSA Journal, 284, 1-137, 2005.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) : Laboratory Procedure Manual Method 28 for Second National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals. 2003.

Vezina, C. M., Walker, N. J. and Olson, J. R. : Subchronic exposure to TCDD, PeCDF, PCB126, and PCB153: effect on hepatic gene expression. Environmental Health Perspectives, 112, 1636, 2004. crossref(new window)

Phillips, D. L., Smith, A. B., Burse, W. W., Steele, G. K. and Hannon, W. H. : Half-life of polychlorinated biphenyls in occupationally exposed workers. Arch. Environmental Health, 44, 351-354, 1989. crossref(new window)

Park, S. A., We, S. U., Cho, B. H., Kim, K. H., Baek, J. H., Han, S. Y. and Min, B. Y. : Levels of PCDDs/ DFs and dl-PCBs in breast milk from Korean women living in Seoul and Ansan: estimation of PCDDs/DFs and dl-PCBs intake for breastfed infants. Proceedings of Environmental Health in Asia-Pacific Region, Jeju, Korea, 164-168, 2008.

Smeds, A. and Saukko, P. : Identification and quantification of polychlorinated biphenyls and some endocrine disrupting pesticides in human adipose tissue from Finland. Chemosphere, 44, 1463-1471, 2001. crossref(new window)

ATSDR : Toxicological Profile for Polychlorinated Biphenyls, Atlanta, , 2002.

Schaeffer, D. J., Dellinger, J. A., Needham, L. L. and Hansen, L. G. : Serum PCB profiles in Native Americans from Wisconsin based on region, diet, age and gender: implications for epidemiology studies. Science of the Total Environment, 357, 74-87, 2006. crossref(new window)

Glynn, A. W., Granath, F., Aune, M., Atuma, S., Darnerud, P. O., Bjerlesius, R., Vainio, H. and Weiderpass, E. : Organochlorines in Swedish women: determinants of serum concentrations. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111, 349-355, 2003.

Sandanger, T. M., Brustad, M., Sandau, C. D. and Lund, E. : Levels of persistent organic pollutants in a coastal northern Norwegian population with high fishliver intake. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 8, 552-557, 2006. crossref(new window)

Apostoli, P., Magoni, M., Bergonzi, R., Carasi, S., Indelicato, A., Scarcella, C. and Donato, F. : Assessment of reference values for polychlorinated biphenyl concentration in human blood. Chemosphere, 61, 413-421, 2005. crossref(new window)

Wolff, M. S., Berkowitz, G. S., Brower, S., Senie, R., Bleiweiss, I. J., Tartter, P., Pace, B., Roy, N., Wallenstein, S. and Weston, A. : Organochlorine exposures and breast cancer risk in New York City women. Environmental Research, 84, 151-161, 2000. crossref(new window)

Collins, J. J., Bodner, K., Burns, C. J., Budinsky, R. A., Lamparski, L. L., Wilken, M., Martin, G. D. and Carson, M. I. : Body mass index and serum chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran levels. Chemosphere 66, 1079-1085, 2007. crossref(new window)

Schecter, A., Ryan, J. J. and Papke, O. : Decrease in levels and body burden of dioxins, dibenzofurans, PCBS, DDE, and HCB in blood and milk in a mother nursing twins over a thirty-eight month period. Chemosphere, 37, 1807-1816, 1998. crossref(new window)

Yua, Z., Palkovicovab, L., Drobnac, B., Petrikc, J., Kocanc, A., Trmovecc, T. and Picciottoa, I. H. : Comparison of organochlrine compound concentrations in colostrum and mature milk. Chemosphere, 66, 1012-1018, 2007. crossref(new window)

Moon, C. H. and Paik, J. M. : Estimation of PCDDs/ PCDFs intake for Korean children and their mothers through daily foods. Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 33(1), 11-15, 2007. crossref(new window)

Moon, H. B. and Choi, H. G. : Human exposure to PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs associated with seafood consumption in Korea from 2005 to 2007. Environment International, 35, 279-284, 2009. crossref(new window)

Tsukino, H., Hanaoka, T., Sasaki, H., Motoyama, H., Hiroshima, M. and Tanaka, T. : Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women. Science of the Total Environment, 359, 90-100, 2006. crossref(new window)

Schuhmacher, M., Domingo, J. L., Kiviranta, H. and Vartiainen, T. : Monitoring dioxins and furans in a population living near a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in breast milk. Chemosphere, 57, 43-49, 2004. crossref(new window)

Kunisue, T., Muraoka, M., Ohtake, M., Sudaryanto, A., Minh, N. H., Ueno, D., Higaki, Y., Ochi, M., Tsydenova, O., Kamikawa, S., Tonegi, T., Nakamura, Y., Shimomura, H., Nagayama, J. and Tanabe, S. : Contamination status of persistent organochlorines in human breast milk from Japan: recent levels and temporal trend. Chemosphere, 64, 1601-1608, 2006. crossref(new window)

Kim, B. H., Ikonomou, M. G., Lee, S. J., Kim, H. S. and Chang, Y. S. : Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polychlorinated biphenyls in human blood samples from Korea. Science of the Total Environment, 336, 45-56, 2005. crossref(new window)

Park, H., Lee, S. J., Kang, J. H. and Chang, Y. S. : Congener-specific approach to human PCB concentrations by serum analysis. Chemosphere, 68, 1699-1706, 2007. crossref(new window)

Kang, J. H., Park, H. K., Chang, Y. S. and Choi, J. W. : Distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in human serum from urban areas in Korea. Chemosphere, 332, 1124-1133, 2008.

Uehara, R., Peng, G., Nakamura, Y., Matsuura, N., Kondo, N. and Tada, H. : Human milk survey for dioxins in the general population in Japan. Chemosphere, 62, 1135-1141, 2006. crossref(new window)

Malisch, R. and Van Leeuwen, R. : PCDD/F Results of the WHO coordinated exposure study on the levels of PCBs, PCDDs and PCDFs in human milk. Organohalogen Compounds, 64, 140-143, 2003.