Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Chroline and Efficiency of Ventilation for an Indoor Swimming Pool
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Assessment for Inhalation Exposure to Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Chroline and Efficiency of Ventilation for an Indoor Swimming Pool
Park, Hae-Dong; Park, Hyun-Hee; Shin, Jung-Ah; Kim, Tae-Ho;
  PDF(new window)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the air quality surrounding an indoor swimming pool, to estimate the cancer risk based on the airborne exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), and to examine the ventilation efficiency by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Chlorine and THMs were measured poolside, and in the staff room and reception area. The indoor swimming pool was modeled using the Airpak program, with ventilation drawings and actual survey data. Temperature, flow and mean age of the air were analyzed. Levels of chlorine poolside, and in the staff room, and reception area were , , and , respectively. Chloroform was the dominant THM in all sampling sites and mean concentrations were , , and poolside, in the staff room and reception area, respectively. Bromodichloromethane and Dibromochloromethane levels were respectively estimated as and poolside, and in the staff room, and were not detected in the reception area. The cancer risks from inhalation exposure to THMs were estimated between and . A short circulation phenomenon was observed from the supply air vents to the exhaust air vents located in the ceiling. A high temperature layer was formed within one meter of the ceiling, and a low temperature layer was formed under this layer due to the low velocity and high temperature of the supply air, and the improper locations of the supply air vents and exhaust air vents. The stagnation was evident at the above adult pool and the mean age of the air was 22 minutes. Disinfection by-products in the indoor swimming pool were present in higher concentrations than in the outdoor air. In order to increase the removal of pollutants, adjustment was required of the supply air volume and the supply/exhaust position.
indoor swimming pool;Chlorine;THMs;CFD;air quality;
 Cited by
Fantuzzi, G., Fighi, E., Predieri, G., Ceppelli, G., Gobba, F. and Aggazzotti, G. : Occupational exposure to trihalomethanes in indoor swimming pools. The Science of the Total Environment, 264, 257-265, 2001. crossref(new window)

Aggazzotti, G., Fantuzzi, G., Righi, E. and Predieri, G. : Environmental and biological monitoring of chloroform in indoor swimming pools. Journal of Chromatography A, 710, 181-190, 1995. crossref(new window)

WHO : Guidelines for safe recreational water environments Volume 2 - Swimming pools and similar environments. 2006.

Weaver, W. A., Li, J., Wen, Y., Johnston, J., Blatchley, M. R. and Blatchley, E. R. 3rd. : Volatile disinfection by-product analysis from chlorinated indoor swimming pools. Water Research, 43(13), 3308-3318, 2009. crossref(new window)

Lee, J., Ha, K.-T. and Zoh, K.-D. : The characteristics of THMs production by different disinfection methods in swimming pools water. Korea Journal of Environmental Health, 32(2), 171-178, 2006.

Lee, M.-H. Jun, M.-J., Kim, H.-J. Eom, S.-W. and Choi, H.-Y. : Characteristics of byproducts from three different disinfection technologies applied to indoor swimming pool in seoul. Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Analysis, 11(4), 268-274, 2008.

Erdinger, L., Khn, K. P., Kirsch, F., Feldhues, R., Frbel, T., Nohynek, B. and Gabrio, T. : Pathways of trihalomethane uptake in swimming pools. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, 207(6), 571-575, 2004. crossref(new window)

Kim, M.-K., Park, Y.-S. and Chung, Y. : Studies on the quantitative analysis and the health effect of VOCs in environment - Analysis for THMs of tap water in six cities of Korea. Analytical Science & Technology, 13(1), 55-65, 2000.

Jeong, M.-S. and Lim, H.-T. : A study on environment awareness of quality of water in indoor swimming pools. Korea Sport Research, 12(4), 249-260, 2001.

Jo, W.-K. and Hwang, Y.-M. : Chloroform in the air of indoor swimming pools and the outdoor air near the swimming pools in a city of Korea. Journal of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society, 3(3), 253-261, 1994.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH manual of analytical method 6011. Available from: Accepted August 15, 1994.

National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. NIOSH manual of analytical method 1003, Available from: Accepted March 15, 2003.

Jeong, J.-Y., Shim, K.-J., Yi, G.-Y., Park, J.-S. and Jeong, H.-K. : Evaluation of chlorine exposure in a indoor swimming pool. Health Hazard Evaluation Report, 2000.

ACGIH : 2010 TLVs and BEIs with 7th Edition Documentaion. 2010.

Santa Marina, L., Ibarluzea, J., Basterrechea, M., Goi, F., Ulibarrena, E., Artieda, J. and Orruo, I. : Indoor air and bathing water pollution in indoor swimming pools in Guipzcoa (Spain). Gaceta Sanitaria, 23(2), 115-120, 2009. crossref(new window)

Thiriat, N., Paulus, H., Le Bot, B. and Glorennec, P. : Exposure to inhaled THM: comparison of continuous and event-specific exposure assessment for epidemiologic purposes. Environment International, 35(7), 1086-1089, 2009. crossref(new window)

Drobnic, F. A., Frexia, P., Casan, J. S. and Guardino, X. : Assessment of chlorine exposure in swimmer during training. Medical Science Sports Exercise, 28(2), 271-274, 1996. crossref(new window)

WHO : Guidelines for safe recreational water environments Volume 2 - Swimming pools and similar environments. 2000.

Lee, S. C., Guo, H., Lam, S. M. J. and Lau, S. L. A. : Multipathway risk assessment on disinfection byproducts of drinking water in Hong Kong. Environmental Research, 94, 47-56, 2004. crossref(new window)

Wang, W., Ye, B., Yang, L., Li, Y. and Wang, Y. : Risk assessment on disinfection by-products of drinking water of different water sources and disinfection processes. Environment International, 33, 219-225, 2007. crossref(new window)

Panyakapo, M., Soontornchai, S. and Paopuree, P. : Cancer risk assessment from exposure to trihalomethanes in tap water and swimming pool water. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 20, 372-378, 2008. crossref(new window)

Chowdhury, S. and Champagne, P. : Risk from exposure to trihalomethanes during shower -probabilistic assessment and control. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 1570- 1578, 2009. crossref(new window)

Lee, J., Ha, K. T. and Zoh, K. D. : Characteristics of trihalomethane(THM) production and associated health risk assessment in swimming pool waters treated with different disinfection methods. Science of the Total Environment, 407, 1990-1997, 2009. crossref(new window)

Chung, H. J. : A study on indoor air quality in traveler waiting room in Daejeon Area. Korean Society of Environmental Administration, 9(2), 155-170, 2003.

Park, J. G. and Yoon, J. W. : A hygienic evaluation of the indoor air quality in public used buildings. Korean Society of Environmental Administration, 9(1), 49-56, 2003.

Uyan, Z. S., Carraro, S., Piacentini, G. and Baraldi, E. : Swimming pool respiratory health and childhood asthma-should we change our beliefs. Pediatric Pulmonology, 44, 31-37, 2009. crossref(new window)

USEPA. : Guidelines for carcinogen risk assessment. Risk assessment forum U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. EPA/630/P/03/001F, 2005.

Jang, J.-Y., Jo, S.-N., Kim, S., Kim, S.-J. and Cheong, H.-K. : Korean Exposure Factors Handbook, Ministry of Environment, Seoul, Korea, 2007.