Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of PM10 in High Schools in the Ulsan Metropolitan Area
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Concentration and Distribution Characteristics of PM10 in High Schools in the Ulsan Metropolitan Area
Jung, Jong-Hyeon; Shon, Byung-Hyun; Phee, Young-Gyu;
  PDF(new window)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution characteristics of at high schools classrooms in Ulsan and its surroundings. This study evaluated levels in classrooms at 79 high schools in Ulsan from May 2008 to May 2009. The average level was 63.8 , and the rate of exceeding the statutory maintenance limit was 16.0%. The average level was higher in general schools (64.9 ) compared to professional schools (59.2 ), and private schools (66.6 ) was higher than that of public schools (62.5 ). The average level (68.4 ) in general classrooms was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than that in multi-purpose ones (54.6 ), and first-year student classrooms (73.3 ) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that in second or third grade ones (67.6 , 51.5 , respectively). The level in schools in Dong-Gu in the vicinity of assorted industrial complexes was higher than that of schools located in other districts around the Ulsan Metropolitan Area. The regression model showed that level was positively associated with number of students and relative humidity.
;Concentration;High school;Classroom;Ulsan;
 Cited by
Stolwijk JA. Risk assessment of acute health and comfort effects of indoor air pollution. Annals of the New York Academy of Science. 1992; 641: 56- 62. crossref(new window)

Jung JH, Seo BS, Ju DJ, Park MC, Phee YG, Shon BH. Assessment of the indoor air quality at schools in Ulsan. J Environ Health Sci. 2010; 36(6): 472-479. crossref(new window)

Skillas G, Huglin C, Siegmann, HC. Determination of air exchange rates of rooms and deposition factors for find particles by photoelectric aerosol sensors. Indoor Built Environ. 2000; 8: 246-254.

Yang WH, Kim DW, Chung MH, Yang JS, Park KS. Improvement of indoor air quality by coating of indoor materials of $TiO_{2}$ photocatalyst sol. J Environ Health Sci. 2004; 30(2): 92-97.

Franklin PJ. Indoor air quality and respiratory health of children. Pediatric Respiratory Reviews. 2007; 8: 281-286. crossref(new window)

Asmore MR, Dimitroulopoulou C. Personal exposure of children to air pollution. Atmos Environ. 2009; 43: 128-141. crossref(new window)

World Health Organization: Effects of air pollution on children's health and development-a review of the evidence. Geneva; WHO, 2005.

Barnett AG, Williams GM, Schwartz J. Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand. Am J Respiratory Critical Care Medicine. 2005; 171: 1271-1278.

Mendell MJ, Health GA. Do indoor pollutants and thermal conditions in schools influence student performance? A critical review of the literature. Indoor Air. 2005; 15: 27-52.

Otto DA, Hundnell HK, House DE, Molhave L, Count W. Exposure of humans to a volatile organic mixture. I. Behavioral assessment. Arch Environ Health, 1992; 47: 23-30. crossref(new window)

Rosen KG, Richardson G. Would removing indoor air particulates in children's environments reduce rate of absenteeism -A hypothesis. Sci Total Environ. 1999; 234: 87-93. crossref(new window)

Meininghaus R, Kounili A, Mandin C, Ciolella A. Risk assessment of sensory irritants in indoor air - A case study in French school. Environment International. 2003; 28: 553-557. crossref(new window)

Daisey RM, Angell WJ, Apte MG. Indoor air quality, ventilation and health symptoms in schools : an analysis of existing informaaion. Indoor Air. 2003; 13(1): 53-64. crossref(new window)

Jung JH. A study on reaction characteristic of $SO_{2}$/ NOx simultaneous removal for alkali absorbent/ additive in FGD and waste incinerator process [Ph.D. Dissertation]. [Pusan]: Pusan National University; 1999.

Jung JH. Effects of air pollutants on the health/ environmental risk assessment and weathering of stone cultural properties in Gyeongju and its vicinities [Ph.D. Dissertation]. [Gyeongsan]: Daegu Haany University; 2008.

Kulkarni N, Girgg J. Effect of air pollution on children. Pediatrics and Child Health. 2008; 18(5): 238-243. crossref(new window)

Norback D, Walinder R, Wieslander G, Smedje G, Venge P. Indoor air pollutants in schools: nasal patency and biomakers in nasal lavage. Allergy. 2000; 55: 163-170. crossref(new window)

Klot S, Wolke G, Wolche T, Tucho T, Heinrich J, Dockery DW, Schwartz J, Kreyling W G, Wichmann HE, Peters A. Increased asthma medication use in association with ambient fine and ultrafine particles. European Respiratory J. 2002; 20(3): 691-702. crossref(new window)

Pope CA, Hansen ML, Long RW, Nielsen KR, Eatough NL, Wilson WE, Eatought DJ. Ambient particulate air pollution, heart rate variability, and blood markers of inflammation in a panel of elderly subjects. Environ Health Perspect. 2004; 112: 339-345. crossref(new window)

Barnett AG, Williams GM, Schwartz J. Air pollution and child respiratory health: a case-crossover study in Australia and New Zealand. Am J Respiratory Critical Care Med. 2005; 171: 1271-1278.

Yang WH. School indoor air quality and health effects. J Environ Health Sci. 2009; 35(3): 143- 152.

Yu SD, Cha JH, Kim DS, Lee JT. Effects of fine particles on pulmonary function of elementary school children in Ulsan. J Environ Health Sci. 2007; 33(5): 365-371. crossref(new window)

Bae HJ, Kim MH, Lee AK, Park J. Acute effects on $PM_{10}$ on asthma hospitalization among children and benefit analysis at four major cities in Korea. J Environ Health Sci. 2009; 35(1): 1-10. crossref(new window)

Sohn JR, Yoon SW, Kim YS, Roh YM, Lee CM, Son BS, Yang WH. A Survey on the indoor air quality of some school classrooms in Korea. J Korean Society for Indoor Environ. 2006; 3(1): 54- 63.

Cho TJ, Choi HS, Jeon YT, Lee CW, Lee JD, Jou HM, Son BS. The study of indoor air at schools in Chung-Nam area, J Environ Sci. 2008; 17: 501- 507. crossref(new window)

Roh YM, Kim JC, Lee CM, Kim YS, Ha MN, Kwon HJ. A survey of distribution for indoor air pollutants in classrooms of some elementary schools. J Korean Society for Indoor Environment. 2007; 4(4): 204-213.

Lim YW, Lee CS, Kim HH, Yang JY, Lee GW, Sohn JR, Park JW, Shin DC. A study on the indoor air pollution in the classrooms of elementary schools in Korea. J Korean Society for Indoor Environ. 2008; 5(1): 37-49.

Ulsan Metropolitan Office of Education. URL ;

Ministry of Education, Science and Technology. School Law. 2010.

Myhrvold AN, Olsen E, Lauridsen O. Indoor environment in schools-pupils health and performance in regard to $CO_{2}$ concentration. Indoor Air. 1996; 4: 369-374.

Shaughnessy RJ, Shaughnessy UH, Nevalainen A, Moschandreas D. A preliminary study on the association between ventilation rates in classrooms and student performance. Indoor Air. 2006; 16: 465- 468. crossref(new window)

Gemenetzis P, Moussas P, Arditsoglou A. Samara C. Mass concentration and elemental composition of indoor $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ in University rooms in Thessaloniki, northern Greece. Atmos Environ. 2006; 40: 3195-3206. crossref(new window)

Fromme H, Twardella D, Dietrich S, Heitmann D, Schierl R, Liebl B, Ruden H. Particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms-exploratory results from Munich and surrounding area. Atmos Environ. 2007; 41: 854-866. crossref(new window)

Ulsan Metropolitan City (2010). White Book of Environment in 2009, 219, 273.

Yang W, Sohn J, Kim J, Son B, Park J. Indoor air quality investigation according to age of the school buildings in Korea. J Environ Management, 2009; 90: 348-354. crossref(new window)

Ministry of Environment (2010). Result of measurement data analysis of 6 air pollutants in 2009, 2-10.

Branis M, Rezacova P, Domasova M. The effect of outdoor air and indoor human activity on mass concentrations of $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, and $PM_{1}$ in a classroom. Environ Res. 2005; 99: 143-149. crossref(new window)