Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Research on Bacterial Distribution of Public Lavatory
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Research on Bacterial Distribution of Public Lavatory
Choi, Han-Young; Kwon, Woo-Taeg; Lee, Woo-Sik; Lee, Hyang;
  PDF(new window)
Objective: This study was performed to assess bacterial distribution concerned in sanitation management of public lavatory in Seoul. Methods: In this research, bacteriological investigation on public lavatory was accomplished for bidet water, bidet nozzle, washbowl and lavatory stool in the 50 public facilities such as public institutions, subway stations, cinema, department stores, large-scale buildings and hospitals amount to 374 specimens. Results: The geometric mean of colony forming unit(CFU) in total aerobic colony count were analyzed as follows; on lavatory stool, on bidet nozzle, on center ring of washbowl, in bidet water (ml) and 7.0/ea on doorknob. Opportunistically pathogenic germs such as Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa were isolated in 3.7%, 5.9%, 3.2% and 1.9% of total specimens, respectively. Conclusion: The result of this study shows that there were some facilities where the pathogenic germs were detected to may cause urological infection. And the CFU of general bacteria as the representative indicator of disinfection and lavatory cleaning were high enough to imply the improvement of sanitation management of public lavatories should be contrived.
bacteriological investigation;pathogenic germs;public lavatory;sanitation;
 Cited by
일부 공중화장실 위생설비의 오염지표세균 조사,김종규;김중순;

한국환경보건학회지, 2014. vol.40. 1, pp.63-70 crossref(new window)
화장실 공기 중 미생물 분포 조사연구,김종규;김아혁;김중순;

한국환경보건학회지, 2014. vol.40. 4, pp.304-312 crossref(new window)
The Load of Indicator Bacteria of Sanitary Ware in Public Restrooms, Korean Journal of Environmental Health Sciences, 2014, 40, 1, 63  crossref(new windwow)
Lee KS, A study for effective establishment and management of lavatory [dissertation]. [Daejeon]: Hanbat National University; 2007.

Lee JB, A study for management and maintenance improvement of public lavatory[dissertation]. [Seoul]: Kyunghee University; 2006.

Kang BD, A study on using character of plumbing fixture of a lavatory in university building[dissertation]. [Pusan]: Pukyung National University; 2008.

Hutchinson RI. Some observations on the method of spread of Sonne dysentery. Mon Bull Minist Health Public Health Lab Serv. 1956; 15: 110-118.

Newsom SWB. Microbiology of hospital toilets. Lancet. 1972; 300: 700-703. crossref(new window)

Barker J, Bloomfield SF. Survival of Salmonella in bathrooms and toilets in domestic homes following salmonellosis. J Appl Microbiol 2000; 89: 137-144. crossref(new window)

Mendes MF, Lynch DJ. A bacteriological survey of washrooms and toilets. J Hyg. 1976; 76: 183-190. crossref(new window)

Giannini MA, Nance D, McCullers JA. Are toilet seats a vector for transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus? Am J Infect Control 2009; 37: 505-506. crossref(new window)

Park HS, Lim HS, Lee JY. A Study on Sustainable design elements of public toilets in parks. J. of Asian Architec. and Build. Eng. 2012; 14(2): 19-29.

Lee JB. A study of development in maintenance and management of public restroom [dissertation]. [Yongin]: Kyunghee University; 2007.

Yeon JW, Chang MW, Kim KH, Detection and isolation of genital mycoplasmas from public lavatory bowls, J Bacteriol and Virol, 2002; 32(3): 231-237.

Byung Uk, Lee IG, Hong, DH, Lee ES, Chong JH, Jung JH, et al. Bacterial bioaerosol concentrations in public restroom environments. Aerosol and Air Quality Res. 2012; 12: 251-255.

Lee GS, Diagnostic Microbiology, Seoul: Korea Medicine Book; 1999.

Suh HW. Trend and issue of a illuminance criterion in residential space [dissertation]. [Seoul]: Hanyangl University; 2009.

Ministry of Environment, Official Test Method of Drinking Water. Seoul: 2010. p.439.

Won Tae-Yeon, Jung Sung-Won, Hangeul SPSS 12K Statistics Survey and Analysis, SPSS Academy, 2004.

Sehulster L, Chinn RY. Guidelines for environmental infection control in healthcare facilities. Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003; 52(RR-10): 1-42.

Sexton T, Clarke P, O'Neill E. Dillane T. Humphreys H. Environmental reservoirs of methicillinresistan Staphylococcus aureus in isolation rooms: correlation with patient isolates and implications for hospital hygiene. J Hosp Infect. 2006: 187-194.

Boone SA, Gerba CP. Significance of fomites in the spread of respiratory and enteric viral disease. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007; 73: 1687-96. crossref(new window)

Eckstein BC, Adams DA, Eckstein EC, Rao A, Sethi AK, Yadavalli GK, et al. Reduction of Clostridium difficile and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus contamination of environmental surfaces after an intervention to improve cleaning methods. BMC Infect Dis 2007; 7: 61. crossref(new window)

Hardy KJ, Oppenheim BA, Gossain S, Gao F, Hawkey PM. A study of the relationship between environmental contamination with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and patients' acquisition of MRSA. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2006; 27: 127-132. crossref(new window)

Isakbaeva ET, Widdowson MA, Beard RS, Bulens SN, Mullins J, Monroe SS, et al. Norovirus transmission on cruise ship. Emerg Infect Dis. 2005; 11: 154-158. crossref(new window)

Cramer EH, Blanton CJ, Blanton LH, Vaughan GH Jr, Bopp CA, Forney DL. Epidemiology of gastroenteritis on cruise ships, 2001-2004. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30: 252-257. crossref(new window)

Barker J, Jones MV. The potential spread of infection caused by aerosol contamination of surfaces after flushing a domestic toilet. J Appl Microbiol. 2005; 99: 339-347. crossref(new window)

Best EL, Sandoe JAT, Wilcox MH. Potential for aerosolization of Clostridium difficile after flushing toilets: the role of toilet lids in reducing environmental contamination risk. J Hosp Infect. 2012; 80: 1-5. crossref(new window)

Sinclair RG, Gerba CP. Microbial contamination in kitchens and bathrooms of rural Cambodian village households. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2011; 52: 144-149. crossref(new window)

Carling PC, Bruno-Murtha LA, Griffiths JK. Cruise ship environmental hygiene and the risk of norovirus infection outbreaks: an objective assessment of 56 vessels over 3 years. Clin Infect Dis. 2009; 49:1 312-1317. crossref(new window)

Pace NR. A molecular view of microbial diversity and the biosphere. Science. 1997; 276: 734-740. crossref(new window)

Dancer S.J. How do we assess hospital cleaning? A proposal for microbiological standards for surface hygiene in hospitals. J Hosp Infect. 2004; 56: 10- 15.

Hannuksela A, Hannuksela M. Soaps and detergents in skin diseases. Clin Dermatol. 1996; 14(1): 77-80.

Lakshmi C, Srinivas CR, Anand CV, Mathew AC. Irritancy ranking of 31 cleansers in the Indian market in a 24-h patch test. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2008; 30(4): 277-283. crossref(new window)