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Survey of Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment of Hazardous Materials in Child-Specific Products
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 Title & Authors
Survey of Exposure Factors for Risk Assessment of Hazardous Materials in Child-Specific Products
Kim, Jungkon; Seo, Jung-Kwan; Kim, Taksoo; Park, Gun-Ho;
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 Abstract
Background: Despite children`s unique characteristics that distinguish them from adults, relatively few attempts have been made to measure exposure factors for characterization of children`s exposure to hazardous chemicals in child-specific products (CSP). This study was conducted to establish the child-specific exposure factors for exposure and risk assessment of hazardous substances in CSP. Methods: We investigated the exposure factors (e.g., time use of child-products, time and frequency of object-to-body contact, time and frequency of object-to-mouth contact) influencing children`s exposure to CSP (e.g., toys, playmats, oil pastels, etc.) in 650 children through a parent-completed questionnaire using a web-based survey. Participants were recruited in five age groups, <1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-6, and 6-12 years of age. Results: The child-specific exposure factors were presented as the mean, median, percentile, minimum, and maximum values. Time activity for play mats was the longest among CSP and infants spent more time on them than did elder age groups (189.3-224.7 min/day for <1-2 years vs. 91.2 min/day for 6-12 years). It is apparent that time and frequency of toy block- and plastic toy-to-mouth contact significantly decreased as a function of age. When the variation of CSP use patterns was compared by gender, the only variable that was statistically different between genders was time activity in child-products exposure space. Conclusion: We believe the five child-specific exposure factors suggested in the present study will be valuable for reducing uncertainty in the estimation of chemical exposure during risk assessment of CSP and furthermore, in the appropriate regulations to protect children`s health.
 Keywords
Child-specific products;Children`s exposure;Non-dietary ingestion;Indirect ingestion;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
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한국환경보건학회지, 2014. vol.40. 3, pp.178-186 crossref(new window)
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위해성에 근거한 어린이용품 함유가능 환경유해인자 135종의 관리를 위한 향후 과제,김정곤;서정관;김탁수;박건호;

Journal of Environmental Science International, 2014. vol.23. 7, pp.1277-1287 crossref(new window)
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Future Challenges for Risk-Based Management of 135 Environmental Hazardous Substances in Children's Products, Journal of Environmental Science International, 2014, 23, 7, 1277  crossref(new windwow)
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