JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Indoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Different Sizes of Pubs with Non-comprehensive Smoke-free Regulation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Indoor PM2.5 Concentrations in Different Sizes of Pubs with Non-comprehensive Smoke-free Regulation
Kim, Jeonghoon; Lim, Chaeyun; Lee, Daeyeop; Kim, Heyjin; Guak, Sooyoung; Lee, Na Eun; Kim, Sang Hwan; Ha, Kwon Chul; Lee, Kiyoung;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Objectives: The Korean government implemented a smoke-free regulation for pubs with a net indoor area of on January 1, 2014. The purpose of this study was to determine the indoor levels of concentrations of particulate matter smaller than () in implemented and non-implemented pubs in Seoul and Changwon. Methods: concentrations in fifty-two (implemented) and fifty-seven < (non-implemented) pubs were measured. A real-time aerosol monitor was used to measure concentrations. Field technicians recorded characteristics of the pubs including net indoor area, indoor volume and presence of smoking rooms and counted the number of burning cigarettes, patrons and vents. Results: Differences between indoor and outdoor concentrations in and < pubs were not significantly different in each city. Smoking was observed in 33% of pubs and 51% of < pubs. Average differences between indoor and outdoor concentrations in the and < pubs were and , respectively. When smokers were not observed, differences between indoor and outdoor concentrations ware in pubs and in < pubs. Conclusion: Although the regulation was implemented only in pubs, a higher difference between indoor and outdoor concentrations was observed in implemented and non-implemented pubs with smokers. Strict implementation of the regulation in all pubs is needed for better indoor air quality.
 Keywords
Indoor air quality;;Pub;Secondhand smoke;Smoke-free regulation;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
U.S. Department of Health Human Services. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the Surgeon General. In Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.

2.
U.S. Department of Health Human Services. How tobacco smoke causes disease: the biology and behavioral basis for smoking-attributable disease: a report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. 2010.

3.
Brennan P, Buffler PA, Reynolds P, Wu AH, Wichmann HE, Agudo A, et al. Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: a pooled analysis of two large studies. Int J Cancer. 2004; 109(1): 125-131. crossref(new window)

4.
He J, Vupputuri S, Allen K, Prerost MR, Hughes J, Whelton PK. Passive smoking and the risk of coronary heart disease-a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. N Engl J Med. 1999; 340(12): 920-6. crossref(new window)

5.
Sturm JJ, Yeatts K, Loomis D. Effects of tobacco smoke exposure on asthma prevalence and medical care use in North Carolina middle school children. Am J Public Health. 2004; 94(2): 308-313. crossref(new window)

6.
Goodman P, Agnew M, McCaffrey M, Paul G, Clancy L. Effects of the Irish smoking ban on respiratory health of bar workers and air quality in Dublin pubs. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007; 175(8): 840-5. crossref(new window)

7.
Lee K, Hahn EJ, Pieper N, Okoli CT, Repace J, Troutman A. Differential impacts of smoke-free laws on indoor air quality. J Environ Health. 2008; 70(8): 24-30.

8.
Puett RC, Hart JE, Yanosky JD, Paciorek C, Schwartz J, Suh H, et al. Chronic fine and coarse particulate exposure, mortality, and coronary heart disease in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2009; 117(11): 1697-1701. crossref(new window)

9.
Valente P, Forastiere F, Bacosi A, Cattani G, Di Carlo S, Ferri M, et al. Exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from secondhand smoke in public places before and after the smoking ban, Italy 2005. Tob Control. 2007; 16(5): 312-7. crossref(new window)

10.
Kim J, Kwon HJ, Lee K, Lee DH, Paek Y, Kim SS, et al. Air quality, biomarker levels and health effects on staff in Korean restaurants and pubs before and after a smoking ban. Nicotine Tob Res. 2015: ntv012.

11.
Semple S, Creely KS, Naji A, Miller BG, Ayres JG. Secondhand smoke levels in Scottish pubs: the effect of smoke-free legislation. Tob Control. 2007; 16(2): 127-132. crossref(new window)

12.
Lee K, Hahn EJ, Robertson HE, Lee S, Vogel SL, Travers MJ. Strength of smoke-free air laws and indoor air quality. Nicotine Tob Res. 2009; 11(4): 381-6. crossref(new window)

13.
Repace J. Respirable particles and carcinogens in the air of delaware hospitality venues before and after a smoking ban. ACOEM. 2004; 46(9): 887-905.

14.
Lee J, Lim S, Lee K, Guo X, Kamath R, Yamato H, et al. Secondhand smoke exposures in indoor public places in seven Asian countries. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2010; 213(5): 348-351. crossref(new window)

15.
KHPF. Evaluation of effects of National smoke-free law by measuring indoor secondhand smoke. The Korea Health Promotion Fund, Ministry of Health & Welfare; 2013.

16.
Nebot M, Lopez MJ, Ariza C, Perez-Rios M, Fu M, Schiaffino A, et al. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to secondhand smoke in offices and hospitality venues: before-and-after study. Environ Health Perspect. 2009; 117(3): 344-7. crossref(new window)