Advanced SearchSearch Tips
An Investigation of Ingredients and Hazardous Substances in Some Consumer Products - Focusing on Cleaners and Disinfectants -
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
An Investigation of Ingredients and Hazardous Substances in Some Consumer Products - Focusing on Cleaners and Disinfectants -
Heo, Da-An; Huh, Eun-Hae; Park, Ji Young; Moon, Kyong Whan; Lee, Kiyoung;
  PDF(new window)
Objectives: This study was conducted to identify the ingredients used in ten consumer product categories and determine hazardous substances among these ingredients. Methods: A total of 542 commercial products in ten consumer product categories were selected. The consumer products were sticker removers, washing machine cleaners, multi-purpose cleaners, mold removers, glass cleaners, chlorinated sanitizers, air conditioner cleaners, disposal cleaners, drain cleaners and disinfectant sprays. The company list was complied from governmental records and a market survey. The respective companies were contacted for a list of ingredients found in the 542 products. Results: The corresponding companies listed 163 ingredients. According to European Union (EU) Directive 67/548/EEC, 38 of the 163 ingredients were classified as dangerous substances. Among these substances, 28 ingredients were hazardous to the skin, 15 were hazardous to the eye, and nine were hazardous if inhaled. Three ingredients were classified as CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction) substances: liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) with carcinogenicity and mutagenicity, and VM&P naphtha and ligroine with carcinogenicity. Conclusion: Various chemicals, including hazardous substances, were used in consumer products. Risk assessment of consumer products is required in order to protect the population from health risks.
Cleaner;Consumer product;Disinfectant;Hazardous substance;Ingredients;
 Cited by
Yonhap Newspaper. The accident reports of humidifier disinfectants. 2015 Jan 29.

Baby newspaper[internet]. The accident reports of humidifier disinfectants. 2012 Feb 3. Available: CategoryCode=0010&NewsCode=201202030107-521274589934#z [accessed 10 Aug 2015].

YY Choi, HK Lim, SY Lim, DM Paek. Health damages and lessons of the use of humidifier disinfectants in Korea. J Environ Health Sci. 2012; 38(2): 166-174.

Maeil Business Newspaper. New disinfectant product for humidifier. 1994 Dec 16.

JY Kim, HH Kim, KH Cho. Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHGM, and PGH: Severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2013; 13(2): 148-160. crossref(new window)

Kyunghyang Newspaper. Detecting carcinogenic chemicals exceeding permissible limit in French tattoo inks. 2013 July 11.

The Korea Industry Daily Newspaper. Detecting hazardous chemicals in false eyelashes adhesive. 2012 July 23.

MR Goldsmith, CM Grulke, RD Brooks, TR Transue, YM Tan, A Frame, et al. Development of a consumer product ingredient database for chemical exposure screening and prioritization. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2014; 65: 269-279. crossref(new window)

Robin E. Dodson, Marcia Nishioka, Laurel J. Standley, Laura J. Perovich, Julia Green Brody, Ruthann A. Rudel. Endocrine disruptors and asthma-associated chemicals in consumer products. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2012; 120(7): 935-943. crossref(new window)

European Parliament C. Council Directive 67/548/ EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances. 1967. Available:

European Parliament C. Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 (Text with EEA relevance). 2008. Available:

Gerster FM, Vernez D, Wild PP, Hopf NB. Hazardous substances in frequently used professional cleaning products. International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2014; 20(1): 46-60. crossref(new window)

Sally F. Bloomfield. The use of disinfectants in the home. Journal of Applied Bacteriology. 1978; 45(1): 1-38. crossref(new window)

Racioppi F, Daskaleros PA, Besbelli N, Borges A, Deraemaeker C, Magalini SI, et al. Household bleaches based on sodium hypochlorite: review of acute toxicology and poison control center experience. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 1994; 32(9): 845-861. crossref(new window)

Nixon GA, Tyson CA, Wertz WC. Interspecies comparisons of skin irritancy. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1975; 31(3): 481-490. crossref(new window)

Nixon GA, Bannan EA, Gaynor TW, Johnston DH, Griffith JF. Evaluation of modified methods for determining skin irritation. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 1990; 12(2): 127-136. crossref(new window)

Lehman-McKeeman LD, Gamsky EA, Hicks SM, Vassallo JD, Mar MH, et al. Diethanolamine induces hepatic choline deficiency in mice. Toxicological Sciences. 2002; 67(1): 38-45. crossref(new window)

Sharma N, Singh D, Sobti A, Agarwal P, Velpandian T, et al. Course and outcome of accidental sodium hydroxide ocular injury. Am J Ophthalmon. 2012; 154(4): 740-749. crossref(new window)

Hautemaniere A, Cunat L, Ahmed-Lecheheb D, Hajjard F,Gerardin F, Morele Y, et al. Assessment of exposure to ethanol vapors released during use of Alcohol-Based Hand Rubs by healthcare workers. J Infect Public Health. 2013; 6(1): 16-26. crossref(new window)

Franova S, Joskova M, Sadlonova V, Pavelcikova D, Mesarosova L, et al. Experimental model of allergic asthma. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2013; 756: 49-55. crossref(new window)

Api AM, Ritacco G, Hawkins DR. The fate of dermally applied [14C]D-limonene in rats and humans. Int J Toxicol. 2013; 32(2): 130-135. crossref(new window)

Capron A, Destree J, Jacobs P, Wallemacq P. Permeability of gloves to selected chemotherapeutic agents after treatment with alcohol or isopropyl alcohol. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2012; 69(19): 1665-1670. crossref(new window)

Sahmel J, Devlin K, Burns A, Ferracini T, Ground M, Paustenbach D. An analysis of workplace exposures to benzene over four decades at a petrochemical processing and manufacturing facility (1962-1999). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013; 76(12): 723-746. crossref(new window)

Gijsbers JH, Tielemans E, Brouwer DH, van Hemmen JJ. Dermal exposure during filling, loading and brushing with products containing 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Ann Occup Hyg. 2004; 48(3): 219-227. crossref(new window)

Sirdah MM, Al Laham NA, El Madhoun RA. Possible health effects of liquefied petroleum gas on workers at filling and distribution stations of Gaza governorates. East Mediterr Health J. 2013; 19(3): 289-294.

HN Bhargava, PA Leonard. Triclosan: applications and safety. American journal of infection control. 1996; 24(3): 209-218. crossref(new window)

Arias Irigoyen J, Garrido Borrero P. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis from monoethanolamine in a metal worker. Allergol Immunopathol. 2011; 39(3): 187-188. crossref(new window)

Kollef MH. Chronic ammonium hydroxide exposure. Ann Intern Med. 1987; 107(1): 118.

J Liesivuori, H Savolainen. Methanol and formic Acid toxicity: biochemical mechanisms. Pharmacology& Toxicology. 1991; 69(3): 157-163. crossref(new window)

Boatman R, Corley R, Green T, Klaunig J, Udden M. Review of studies concerning the tumorigenicity of 2-butoxyethanol in B6C3F1 mice and its relevance for human risk assessment. J Toxicol Environ Health, Part B. 2004; 7(5): 385-398. crossref(new window)

IARC Working Group on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol and 1-tertbutoxypropan-2-ol. IARC Monogr Eval Carcinog Risks Hum. 2006; 88: 419-438.

MS Peter, SM Connolly, AL Schroder. Bronopol allergic contact dermatitis. Contact Dermatitis. 1983; 9(5): 397-401. crossref(new window)

MK Bruch. Chloroxylenol: An old-new antimicrobial. In: JM Ascenzi. Handbook of disinfectants and antiseptics. New York: Marcel Dekker; 1996. p.265-274.

T Satoh, K Omae, H Nakashima, T Takebayashi, H Matsumura, et al. Relationship between acetone exposure concentration and health effects in acetate fiber plant workers. Int Arch occup Environ Health. 1996; 68(3): 147-153. crossref(new window)

RD Stewart, AA Herrmann, ED Baretta, HV Forster, JJ Sikora, et al. Acute and repetitive human exposure to isobutane. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environmental & Health. 1977; 3(4): 234-243. crossref(new window)

Lena Ernstgard, Anders Iregren, Bengt Sjogren, Gunnar Johanson. Acute effects of exposure to vapours of acetic acid in humans. Toxicology Letters. 2006; 165: 22-30. crossref(new window)