Publisher : Korean Society of Environmental Health
DOI : 10.5668/JEHS.2016.42.2.118
Title & Authors
Indoor air pollution in ger, a traditional type of residence in Mongolia Lee, Boram; Chimeddulam, Dalaijamts; Jargalsaikhan, Khishigt; Lee, Kiyoung;
Objectives: The traditional type of residence in used in Mongolia, called a ger, is an important residential form and applies coal combustion for cooking and heating. The combustion of coal in ger is the major source of indoor air pollution. The purposes of this study were to measure indoor air pollution in ger and determine the effect of cooking and heating activities. Methods: Indoor temperature, relative humidity, particulate matter less than () and black carbon (BC) were continuously measured for 24 hours in eight ger. The measurements were conducted in January or February 2015. Heavy metals in filter samples were analyzed by ICP-MS. Results: Average indoor temperature and relative humidity were and , respectively. The average indoor concentration in the eight ger was and ranged from 69.4 to . The peak concentrations of and BC during cooking and heating periods were several times higher than the 24- hour average concentration. Conclusion: The major contributor to indoor and BC concentrations in the ger was coal combustion for cooking and heating.
Black carbon;household combustion;indoor air quality;Mongolia;pm2.5;
Dutta S, and Banerjee S. Exposure to Indoor Air Pollution & Women Health The Situation in Urban India. Environment and Urbanization Asia. 2014; 5(1), 131-145.
WHO. Air quality guidelines for Europe; 2000.
Zhang J, Smith KR. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 848-855.
Tserenpurev T. Personal Communication, at the Ministry of Infrastructure, Government of Mongolia, 1 August 2003.
Caldieron JM. Ger Districts in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: Housing and Living Condition Surveys; 2013
WHO. Guidelines for indoor air quality: household fuel combustion. In.: WHO Document Production Services Geneva, Switzerland; 2014.
Hu W, Downward GS, Reiss B, Xu J, Bassig BA, Hosgood III HD, et al. Chapman RS: Personal and indoor PM2. 5 exposure from burning solid fuels in vented and unvented stoves in a rural region of China with a high incidence of lung cancer. Environmental Science Technology. 2014; 48(15):8456- 8464.
Chowdhury Z, Campanella L, Gray C, Al MA, Kenyon J, Pennise, D, et al. Measurement and modeling of indoor air pollution in rural households with multiple stove interventions in Yunnan, China. Atmospheric Environment. 2013; 67:161-169.
Lyon F. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risks to humans research press; 2010.
Chen B, Hong C, Pandey MR, Smith KR. Indoor air pollution in developing countries. World health statistics quarterly Rapport trimestriel de statistiques sanitaires mondiales. 1989; 43(3):127-138.
Ministry of Health, Mongolia. Directorate of Medical Services and Government Implementing Agency, Mongolia; 2003.
ESMAP. Potential for Biofuels for Transport in Developing Countries; Joint UNDP/World Bank Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme (ESMAP), Washington Press; 2005.
Arundel AV, Sterling EM, Biggin JH, Sterling TD. Indirect health effects of relative humidity in indoor environments. Environmental Health Perspectives. 1986; 65:351.
Siddiqui A, Lee K, Bennett D, Yang X, Brown K, Bhutta Z, et al. Indoor carbon monoxide and PM2. 5 concentrations by cooking fuels in Pakistan. Indoor Air. 2009; 19(1):75-82.
Cowlin S, Kaufmann RB, Edwards R, Smith KR. Impact of improved stoves on indoor air quality in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: World Bank report press; 2005.
European Commission. recommends measurement of the PM10 fraction. Note: Ambient Air Quality Research Project (1996-2001) Dioxins, Organics, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Heavy Metals (NSW EPA 2002); 2003.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Pilot Study of Fuel and Stove Use Behavior of Mongolian Ger Households. Available : https://escholarship.org/uc/item/9sr4r2mf#page-1 [accessed 21 April 2016].
EPA. Report to congress on black carbon; 2012.
WHO. goals are based on guidelines for the risk of health impacts; 2000.