Adams. & Kathryn, B. & Sanders, S. & Auth, E. A. (2004). Loneliness and depression in independent living retirement communities: Risk and resilience factors. Aging & Mental Health, 8(6), 475-485.
Ahn, E. (2006). Geriatric Depression and Exercise. Journal of Coaching Development, 8(2), 13-21.
Alexopoulos, G. S. (2005). Depression in the elderly. The Lancet, 365(9475), 1961-1970.
Antonucci, T. C. (1990). "Social Supports and Social Relationships" Binstock R. H. and L. K. George (eds.). Handbook of Aging and Social Sciences, New York: Academic Press.
Bae, J., Rho, B., Kwak, H., & Yoo, H. (2006). An exploratory study on social exclusion and depression of the elderly. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 33, 7-28.
Chou, Kee-Lee. & Chi, Iris. & Boey, Kam Weng. (1999). Determinants of depressive symptoms among elderly Chinese living alone. Clinical Gerontologist, 20(4), 15-27.
Djernes, J. K. (2006). Prevalence and predictors of depression in populations of elderly. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113, 372-387.
Han, S. & Kang, S. & Jeong, S. (2012). Experiences of Depressive Symptom and Suicidal Thinking between the Elderly Living Alone and the Elderly Couples. The Korean Journal of Health Service Management, 6(3), 29-38.
Hur, J. & You, S. (2002). Determinants of Depression among Elderly Persons. Mental Health & Social Work, 13, 7-35.
Jang, S. M. (2008). Family Type and Family Support Effecting on Depression of Elderly Diabetics. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 22, 35-66.
Jee, Y. & Goo, C. (2007). The Differences of Abilities to Physical Activity, Social Networks. Depression Degrees of Elderly between residing Rural and Urban. Korea Coaching Development Center, 9(2), 425-439.
John, P. D. & Blanford, A. A. & Strain, L. A. (2006). Depressive symptoms among older adults in urban and rural areas. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21, 1175-1180.
Kang, H. (2009). Social Activity and Satisfaction of life in Female Elders Living Alone in Rural Area. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Research, 21, 1-26.
Kang, J. S. (2002). The Factors which influence the depression of the elderly. Unpublished master thesis, Chung-Ang University, Korea.
Kim, C. G. (2007). The relationship of family support, health perception, nutritional status, and depression in elders. Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing, 9(1), 14-21.
Kim, E. & Lee, S. (2012). The Informal Social Support Patterns and Depression in Rural Elders: Compared to Urban Elder. Social Science Research Review Kyungsung University, 28(2), 149-176.
Kim, H. K. & Lee, H. J. & Park, S. M. (2010). Factors Influencing Quality of life in Elderly Women Living Alone. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 30(2), 279-292.
Kim, J. & Kim, I. (2000). Patterns of Intergenerational Support Exchange and the Life Satisfaction of the Elderly Parents in Korea. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 20(2), 155-168.
Kim, J. I. & Choe, M. A. & Chae, Y. R. (2009). Prevalence and predictors of geriatric depression in community-dewel-ling elderly. Asian Nursing Research, 3, 121-129.
Kim, K. & Pyo, K. (2008). An Exploration of the Arousing Factors and the Relaxing Factors on Depression among the Old People. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 39, 111-143.
Kim, M. & Kweon, Y. R. (2010). Predictors of depression in residents of geriatric medical and welfare facilities. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 19, 212-219.
Kim, M. H. & Lee, G. Y. & Chung, S. (2000). A Path Analysis on Depression among the Elderly. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 20(3), 211-226.
Kim, Y. & An, J. & Kang, I. (2008). An Ecological Approach to Quality of life of Single Household Old Women. Journal of Korean Association of Family Relations, 13(3), 23-42.
Kim, Y. & Jun, H. & Kim, C. & Hwang, S. (2012). Comparison on the Depression and Quality of Life in Low-income Elderly between Urban and Rural Area. The Society of Living Environment System Korea, 19(1), 42-50.
Kim, Y. (2003). A Study on Analysis of Social Support Effect Models. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 21, 123-140
Kim, Y. (2009). Mediating Effects of Social Supports on the Decrease of Depression of the Rural Elderly. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 46, 77-104.
Ko, H. N. & Lee, S. S. & Han, H. J. (2001). The Prevalence of Depression and Its Related Factors of the Elderly in Rural Area. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 10(4), 645-655.
Kwon, J. & Kim, Y. & Um, T. (2011). Suicidal Ideation among Older adults Who Live Alone with care services: a Moderating Effect of Alcohol Drinking in the Relationship between Previous Suicidal Attempts and Suicidal Ideation. Journal of Welfare for the Aged, 51, 297-320.
Lee, E. J. & Bae, S. K. & Um, T. Y. (2010). A Study on the Influence of Depression and Leisure Participation on Attempted Suicide among the Elderly who lives alone. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 30(2), 615-628.
Lee, M. (2005). Study on the Effect of Social Support on Depression and Suicide of the Old. Korean Journal Of Clinical Social Work, 2(3), 191-212.
Lee, M. & Rhee, K. (2005). Relationship between impaired elders satisfaction with care and their depression. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 25(1), 119-131.
Lee M. S. & Choi, Y. K. & Jung, I. K. & Kwak, D. I. (2000). Epidemiological Study of Geri-atric Depression in a Korea Urban Area. Journal of Korean Geriatric Psychiatry, 4(2), 154-163.
Lee, Y. & Shinkai, S. (2015). Correlates of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms among older adults in Korea and Japan. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 20, 576-286.
Lee, Y. H. & Shin, M. H. & Kweon, S. S. & Choi, S. W. & Ryu, S. Y. & Rhee, J. A. (2008). Prevalence and correlates of depression among the elderly in an urban community. Journal of Agricultural Medicine and Community Health, 33(3), 303-315.
Lim, D. H. (2007). Effects or regular exercise on stress, coping strategy, and life satisfaction of older ages. Unpublished master's thesis, Yonsei University, Seoul.
Lim, E. (2013). The relationship between Depression, Cognitive Function and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living of Elderly Women Living Alone. Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society, 14(4), 1849-1856.
Lim, H. (2009). Exploring Relationships between Life Satisfaction and Patterns of Support Exchange of the Elderly Living Alone and Their Children in Metropolitan City in Japan. Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association, 47(5), 59-66.
Lim, J. (2007). A Study on the Effect that Leisure Programs on Depression and Self-esteem in Elderly Women in Rural Areas. Journal of Korean Academy of Rural Health Nursing, 2(2), 120-126.
Lin, Q. & Kim, H. & Ann, Jung. (2011). Relationship Between Depression and Quality of Life in Elderly Women Living Alone: The Moderating and Mediating Effects of Social Support and Social Activity. The Korean Gerontological Society, 31(1), 33-47.
Michael, Y. L. & Berkman, L. F. & Colditz, G. A. & Kawachi, I. (2001). Living arrangements, social integration, and change in functional health status. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 123-131.
Min, K. C. & Lee, J. (2008). Effects of Providing Support to Informal Social Network on Mental Health of the Elderly: Focused on Gender Difference. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 28(3), 515-533.
Moon, M. J. (2010). Factors influencing depression in elderly people living at home. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing, 40, 542-550.
National Health Big Data Hub (2015). Depression. Retrived September 25, 2015, from http://opendata.hira. or.kr/op/opc/olapMfrnIntrsIlnsInfo.do.
Park, S. H. (1989). Regression Analysis. Seoul: Minyoungsa.
Seo, H. & Kim, H. (2010). Factors Affecting Psychological Well-Being of Frail Elderly Women Living Alone. Korea Academy Of Mental Health Social Work, 35, 176-202.
Sim, M. (2009). The Effects of Activity Level and Depression on the Quality of Life in the Rural and Urban Area's Elders. Unpublished master thesis, Catholic University Of DaeGu, Korea.
Sohn, J. N. (2013). Factors Influencing Depressive Symptoms in Community Dwelling Older People. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 22(2), 107-116.
Sohn, S. & Shin, J. & Shin, H. & Chung, E. & Bum, M. & Kweon, S. (2000), Assessment of Depression and Relates in Rural Elderly. Journal of Agricultural Medicine&Community Health, 25(1), 85-98.
Song, E. & Sohn, Y. (2011). Impact of Body Mass Index and Perceived Health Status on Depression in Elderly Women Livig Alone in the Community. Journal of Korean Academy of Psychiartiic and Mental Health Nursing, 20(4), 376-385.
Song, M. & Kim, S. & Kim, N. (2010). Factors Influencing Depression among Rural Elders. Journal of Korean Gerontological Nursing Society, 12(1), 21-28.
Statistics Korea (2015, Septermber 25). 2015 Elderly Statistic. from http://kostat.go.kr/portal/korea/kor_nw/2/1/index.board?bmode=read&bSeq=&aSeq=348565&pageNo=2&rowNum=10&navCount=10&currPg=&sTarget=title&sTxt=2015
Wang, H. R. & Choi, Y. S. & Cho, M. J. & Choi Y. M. & Shin, H. S. & Je, S. K. & Choi, J. W. & Hong, J. P. (2010). Geriatric Depression and Suicidality According to Residence Type among the Elderly in a Rural City Area. Anxiety and Mood, 6(1), 45-54.
Wu, Zhen-Qiang. & Sun, Liang. & Sun, Ye-Huan. & Zhang, Xiu-Jun. & Tao, Fang-biao & Cui, Guang-Hui. (2010). Correlation between loneliness and social relationship among empty nest elderly in Anhui rural area, China. Aging & Mental Health, 14(1), 108-112.
Xie, Li-Qin. & Zhang, Jing-Ping. & Peng, Fang. & Jiao, Na-Na. (2010). Prevalence and related influencing factors of depressive symptoms for empty-nest elderly living in the rural are of YongZhou, China. Archives of Grontology and Geriatrics, 50, 24-29.
Yoo, J. H., & Sung, H. Y. (2009). The moderating effect of family relationship on depression in the elderly. Journal of the Korean Gerontological Society, 29(2), 717-728.
Yoon, H. (2003). The Impact of Intergenerational Support Exchange to the Psychological Well-Being of Older Parents. Journal of the Korea Gerontological Society, 23(3), 15-28.