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Surfactant-enhanced Soil Washing using Tween and Tergitol Series Surfactants for Kuwait Soil Heavily Contaminated with Crude Oil
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 Title & Authors
Surfactant-enhanced Soil Washing using Tween and Tergitol Series Surfactants for Kuwait Soil Heavily Contaminated with Crude Oil
Heo, Hyojin; Lee, Minhee;
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 Abstract
Batch experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of a surfactant-enhanced soil washing process for soils heavily contaminated with crude oil in Kuwait. TPH concentration of the contaminated soil was 223,754 mg/kg, sampled from the bottom of a vaporized oil extraction pond in the Burgan reservoir field. Commercialized eight nonionic surfactants (Tween and Tergitol series) were used to measure the aqueous solubility for the crude oil. Among them, two Tergitol surfactants were used to evaluate the TPH removal efficiency of the surfactant-enhanced soil washing for heavily contaminated Kuwait soil. The solubility of the crude oil in surfactant solution was in the order Tergitol 15-S-7 > Tergitol 15-S-9 > Tergitol 15-S-12 > Tween-80 > Tween-20 > Tween-60, which showed that the crude oil solubilities of the Tergitol series were higher than those of the Tween series. The TPH removal efficiencies of 2% and 5% Tergitol 15-S-9 solution were 59% and 65%, respectively. Because the residual TPH concentration in the washed soil was still higher than the clean-up level (10,000 mg/kg), the soil washing process was repeated five times. After the fifth washing, the residual TPH concentration in the soil went down to 7,680 mg/kg and its removal efficiency was 97%.
 Keywords
Crude oil;Soil washing;Surfactant;Tergitol;Tween;
 Language
English
 Cited by
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