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Risk Evaluation of Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP) and Bentonite Application via the Mobility Reduction of Soil TNT and Heavy Metals
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 Title & Authors
Risk Evaluation of Monopotassium Phosphate (MKP) and Bentonite Application via the Mobility Reduction of Soil TNT and Heavy Metals
Jung, Jae-Woong; Yu, Gihyeon; Nam, Kyoungphile;
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Simultaneous mobility reduction of explosives and heavy metals in an operational range by monopotassium phosphate (MKP) and bentonite spreading technology was investigated. Potassium ion and phosphate ion in MKP act as explosives sorption enhancer and insoluble heavy metal phosphate formation, respectively, while bentonite acts as the explosives adsorbent. Then, the decrease in surface water concentration of the pollutants and resulting risk reduction for local residents of the operational range, by MKP/bentonite application was estimated. Under untreated scenario, the noncancer hazard index (HI) exceeded unity on February, July and August, mainly due to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT); however, MKP/bentonite treatment was expected to lower the noncancer hazard index by decreasing the surface water concentration of explosives and heavy metals (especially TNT). For example, on July, estimated surface water concentration and HI of TNT were 0.01 mg/L and 1.1, respectively, meanwhile the sorption coefficient of TNT was 3.9 mg1−nkg−1Ln. However, by MKP/bentonite treatment, the TNT sorption coefficient increased to 113.8 mg1−nkg−1Ln and the surface water concentration and HI decreased to about 0.002 mg/L and 0.2, respectively. Based on the result, it can be concluded that MKP/bentonite spreading is a benign technology that can mitigate the risk posed by the pollutants migration from operational ranges.
Monopotassium phosphate;Explosives;Heavy metals;Risk assessment;Operational range;
 Cited by
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