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The Toxicity Assessment of Explosives Contaminated Soil using Soil Microbial Activity Tests
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 Title & Authors
The Toxicity Assessment of Explosives Contaminated Soil using Soil Microbial Activity Tests
Kim, Moonkyung; Jung, Jae-Woong; Nam, Kyoungphile;
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This study was conducted to determine the toxic effect of TNT and RDX on indigenous soil microbes by measuring enzymatic activity. Denitrification activity, dehydrogenase activity, phosphatase activity, and fluorescein diacetate hydrolytic activity were determined for military firing range, field, and paddy soils exposed to TNT, and RDX from 0 to 1,000 mg/kg and 0 to 4,000 mg/kg, respectively, for 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Soil microbial enzymatic activities decreased with higher TNT and RDX concentration and longer exposure time. Microbial enzymatic activities of firing range soil were higher than field and paddy soils, indicating that indigenous microbes in firing range might have been adapted to TNT and RDX due to pre-exposure of the explosives. In addition, the toxicity of TNT and RDX decreased with higher organic matter because TNT and RDX tend to absorb to soil organic matter. No Observable Effect Concentration (NOEC) values of each microbial enzymatic activity were derived by the geometric mean of NOECs from exposure times (2, 4, and 8 weeks) and soil types (firing range, field, paddy soil). The derived NOECs ranged from 45.3 to 55.2 mg/kg for TNT and 286 to 309 mg/kg for RDX.
Soil microbial activity;TNT;RDX;Toxicity;NOEC;
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