JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Research History and Recent Trends in the Development of Sheet Metal-Forming Processes
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Research History and Recent Trends in the Development of Sheet Metal-Forming Processes
Kim, Jong-Bong; Lee, Sung-Uk; Yang, Dong-Yol; Chung, Wan-Jin;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Sheet metal-forming processes such as stamping, deep drawing, bending, shearing, hydroforming, hydromechanical deep drawing, rubber forming, and incremental forming have been widely used in the automotive, aircraft, and ship-building industries. With the expansion of the automotive industry, research on these processes has been remarkably developed in Korea since the 1980s. Here, we review the history of this research as well as recent trends in sheet metal-forming processes. This overview focuses specifically on the results of research in Korea and on the works of Professor D.Y. Yang, in honor of his retirement.
 Keywords
Sheet metal forming;Process design;Review;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Esteves, A., "The Long History of the Pressing of Metals, Interempresas.net," https://www.interempresas.net/Metalforming/Articles/10544-The-long-history-ofthe-pressing-of-metals.html (Accessed 23 March 2016)

2.
Naver, "Hyundai Motor Group," http://terms.naver.com/entry.nhn?docId=652864&cid=43167&categoryId=43167 (Accessed 29 March 2016)

3.
Science Direct, "ScienceDirect," http://www.sciencedirect.com (Accessed 29 March 2016)

4.
Hill, R., "The Mathematical Theory of Plasticity," Oxford University Press, pp. 272-286, 1950.

5.
Naziri, H. and Pearce, R., "The Effect of Plastic Anisotropy on Flange-Wrinkling Behaviour during Sheet Metal Forming," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 10, No. 9, pp. 681-694, 1968. crossref(new window)

6.
Bramley, A. N. and Mellor, P. B., "Some Strain-Rate and Anisotropy Effects in the Stretch-Forming of Steel Sheet," International Journal of Machine Tool Design and Research, Vol. 5, No. 1-2, pp. 43-55, 1965. crossref(new window)

7.
Lee, D. and Zaverrl Jr., F., "Neck Growth and Forming Limits in Sheet Metals," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 157-173, 1982. crossref(new window)

8.
Hardt, D. E., Webb, R. D., and Suh, N. P., "Sheet Metal Die Forming Using Closed-Loop Shape Control," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 165-169, 1982. crossref(new window)

9.
Germain, T., Chung, K., and Wagoner, R. H., "A Rigid-Viscoplastic Finite Element Program for Sheet Metal Forming Analysis," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 1-24, 1989. crossref(new window)

10.
Kim, Y. H. and Wagoner, R. H., "An Analytical Investigation of Deformation-Induced Heating in Tensile Testing," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 179-194, 1987. crossref(new window)

11.
Kim, J.-K. and Thomson, P. F., "Springback and Side-Wall Curl of Galvanized and Galvalume Steel Sheet," Journal of Mechanical Working Technology, Vol. 19, No. 2, pp. 223-238, 1989. crossref(new window)

12.
Kim, K. H. and Kim, D. W., "The Effect of Void Growth on the Limit Strains of Steel Sheets," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 293-300, 1983. crossref(new window)

13.
Kim, Y. J. and Yang, D. Y., "A Rigid-Plastic Finite-Element Formulation Considering the Effect of Geometric Change and Its Application to Hydrostatic Bulging," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 27, No. 7-8, pp. 487-495, 1985. crossref(new window)

14.
Yang, D. Y. and Kim, Y. J., "A Rigid-Plastic Finite-Element Formulation for the Analysis of General Deformation of Planar Anisotropic Sheet Metals and Its Applications," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 28, No. 12, pp. 825-840, 1986. crossref(new window)

15.
Yang, D. Y., Chung, W. J., and Shim, H. B., "Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Analysis of Sheet Metal Forming Processes with Initial Guess Generation," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 32, No. 8, pp. 687-708, 1990. crossref(new window)

16.
Yoon, J. W., Yang, D. Y., and Chung, K., "Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Method Based on Incremental Deformation Theory and Continuum Based Shell Elements for Planar Anisotropic Sheet Materials," Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, Vol. 174, No. 1-2, pp. 23-56, 1999. crossref(new window)

17.
Jung, D. W. and Yang, D. Y., "Step-Wise Combined Implicit/Explicit Finite-Element Simulation of Autobody Stamping," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 83, No. 1-3, pp. 245-260, 1998. crossref(new window)

18.
Huh, H., Han, S. S., and Yang, D. Y., "Modified Membrane Finite Element Formulation Considering Bending Effects in Sheet Metal Forming Analysis," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp. 659-671, 1994. crossref(new window)

19.
Choi, T. H. and Huh, H., "Sheet Metal Forming Analysis of Planar Anisotropic Materials by a Modified Membrane Finite Element Method," Journal of Materials Processing Technolgy, Vols. 89-90, pp. 58-64, 1999. crossref(new window)

20.
Yoon, J. W., Yang, D. Y., Chung, K., and Barlat, F., "A General Elasto-Plastic Finite Element Formulation Based on Incremental Deformation Theory for Planar Anisotropy and Its Application to Sheet Metal Forming," International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp. 35-67, 1999. crossref(new window)

21.
Kubli, W. and Reissner, J., "Optimization of Sheet-Metal Forming Processes Using the Special-Purpose Program AUTOFORM," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 50, No. 1-4, pp. 292-305, 1995. crossref(new window)

22.
Galbraith, P. C. and Hallquist, J. O., "Shell-Element Formulations in LS-DYNA3D: Their Use in the Modelling of Sheet-Metal Forming," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 50, No. 1-4, pp. 158-167, 1995. crossref(new window)

23.
Lee, D. W. and Yang, D. Y., "Consideration of Geometric Nonlinearity in Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Formulation of Continuum Elements for Large Deformation," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 12, pp. 1423-1440, 1997. crossref(new window)

24.
Kim, Y. H. and Wagoner, R. H., "A 3-D Finite Element Method for Non-Isothermal Sheet-Forming Processes," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 11, pp. 911-925, 1991. crossref(new window)

25.
Kim, J.-B., Yang, D. Y., Yoon, J. W., and Barlat, F., "The Effect of Plastic Anisotropy on Compressive Instability in Sheet Metal Forming," Interntional Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 16, No. 6, pp. 649-676, 2000. crossref(new window)

26.
Cao, J. and Boyce, M. C., "Wrinkling Behavior of Rectangular Plates under Lateral Constraint," International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 153-176, 1997. crossref(new window)

27.
Ameziane-Hassani, H. and Neale, K. W., "On the Analysis of Sheet Metal Wrinkling," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 1, pp. 13-30, 1991. crossref(new window)

28.
Wang, C.-T., Kinzel, G., and Altan, T., "Wrinkling Criterion for an Anisotropic Shell with Compound Curvatures in Sheet Forming," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 36, No. 10, pp. 945-960, 1994. crossref(new window)

29.
Szacinski, A. M. and Thomson, P. F., "Critical Conditions for Wrinkling during the Forming of Anisotropic Sheet Metal," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 35, No. 2, pp. 213-226, 1992. crossref(new window)

30.
Kim, J.-B., Yoon, J. W., and Yang, D. Y., "Investigation into the Wrinkling Behavior of Thin Sheet in the Cylindrical Cup Deep Drawing Process Using Bifurcation Theroy," International Journal of Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 66, No. 12, pp. 1673-1705, 2003.

31.
Lee, H. S. and Yang, D. Y., "An Analysis of Hemispherical Punch Stretching by the Energy Method," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 33, No. 6, pp. 435-447, 1991. crossref(new window)

32.
Wagoner, R. H., Wang, W., and Sriram, S., "Development of OSU Formability Test and OSU Friction Test," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 45, No. 1-4, pp. 13-18, 1994. crossref(new window)

33.
Leighton, D. E. and Lee, D., "The Effect of Tooling Temperature on the Formability of Sheet Steel," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, No. 1-4, Vol. 45, pp. 577-582, 1994. crossref(new window)

34.
Stoughton, T. B. and Yoon, J. W., "Sheet Metal Formability Analysis for Anisotropic Materials under Non-Proportional Loading," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 47, No. 12, pp. 1972-2002, 2005. crossref(new window)

35.
Shim, H. B., "Improving Formability to Develop Miniature Stamping Technologies," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 117-125, 2009. crossref(new window)

36.
Kim, H. Y., Lim, H. T., Kim, H. J., and Lee D. J., "The Effect of Prebending on the Formability in the Tube Hydroforming Process of an Aluminum Rear Subframe," Metals and Meterials International, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp. 87-92, 2007. crossref(new window)

37.
Ko, Y. K., Lee, J. S., Huh, H., Kim, H. K., and Park, S. H., "Prediction of Fracture in Hub-Hole Expanding Process Using a New Ductile Fracture Criterion," Journal Materials Processing Technology, Vols. 187-188, pp. 358-362, 2007. crossref(new window)

38.
Yoon, J. W., Song, I. S., Yang, D. Y., Chung, K., and Barlat, F., "Finite Element Method for Sheet Forming Based on an Anisotropic Strain-Rate Potential and the Convected Coordinate System," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences., Vol. 37, No. 7, pp. 733-752, 1995. crossref(new window)

39.
Barlat, F., Becker, R. C., Hayashida, Y., Maeda, Y., Yanagawa, M., et al., "Yielding Description for Solution Strengthened Aluminum Alloys," International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 13, No. 4, pp. 385-401, 1997. crossref(new window)

40.
Lee, M. K., Kim, D., Kim, C., Wenner, M. L., and Chung, K., "Spring-Back Evaluation of Automotive Sheets Based on Isotropic-Kinematic Hardening Laws and Non-Quadratic Anisotropic Yield Functions: Part II: Characterization of Material Properties," International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 883-914, 2005.

41.
Itawa, N., Matsui, M., Nakagawa, N., and Ikura, S., "Improvements in Finite-Element Simulation for Stamping and Application to the Forming of Laser-Welded Blanks," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 50, No. 1-4, pp. 335-347, 1995. crossref(new window)

42.
Kim, H. J., Heo, Y. M., Kim, N. S., Kim, H. Y., and Seo, D. G., "Forming and Drawing Characteristics of Tailor Welded Sheets in a Circular Drawbead," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 105, No. 3, pp. 294-301, 2000. crossref(new window)

43.
Ghoo, B. Y., Keum, Y. T., and Kim, Y. S., "Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Welded Metal in Tailored Steel Sheet Welded by $CO_2$ Laser," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 113, No. 1-3, pp. 692-698, 2001. crossref(new window)

44.
Shin, Y. S., Kim, H. Y., Jeon, B. H., and Oh, S. I., "Prototype Tryout and Die Design for Automotive Parts Using Welded Blank Hydroforming," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vols. 130-131, pp. 121-127, 2002. crossref(new window)

45.
Noh, T. S. and Yang, D. Y., "An Analysis of Hydroforming of Regular Polygonal Boxes," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 4, pp. 139-148, 1987. crossref(new window)

46.
Kim, T. J., Yang, D. Y., and Han, S. S., "Numerical Modeling of the Multi-Stage Sheet Pair Hydroforming Process," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 151, No. 1-3, pp. 48-53, 2004. crossref(new window)

47.
Oh, S. I., Jeon, B. H., Kim, H. Y., and Yang, J. B., "Applications of Hydroforming Processes to Automobile Parts," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 174, No. 1-3, pp. 42-55, 2006. crossref(new window)

48.
Kang, B. S., Son, B. M., and Kim, J., "A Comparative Study of Stamping and Hydroforming Processes for an Automobile Fuel Tank Using FEM," International Journal of Machine Tools Manufacture, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 87-94, 2004. crossref(new window)

49.
Kim, J. B., Lee, D. W., Yang, D. Y., and Park, C. S., "Investigation into Hydromechanical Reverse Redrawing Assisted by Separate Radial Pressure-Process Development and Theoretical Verification," Proc. of Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, Vol. 211, No. 6, pp. 451-462, 1997.

50.
Groche, P., Huber, R., Dorr, J., and Schmoeckel, D., "Hydromechanical Deep-Drawing of Aluminium-Alloys at Elevated Temperatures," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 215-218, 2002. crossref(new window)

51.
Kim, N. S. and Oh, S. I., "Analysis Tool for Roll Forming of Sheet Metal Strips by the Finite Element Method," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 48, No. 1, pp. 235-238, 1999. crossref(new window)

52.
Yoon, S. J. and Yang, D. Y., "Development of a Highly Flexible Incremental Roll Forming Process for the Manufacture of a Doubly Curved Sheet Metal," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 52, No. 1, pp. 201-204, 2003. crossref(new window)

53.
Yoon, S. J. and Yang, D. Y., "An Incremental Roll Forming Process for Manufacturing Doubly Curved Sheets from General Quadrilateral Sheet," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 54, No. 1, pp. 221-224, 2005. crossref(new window)

54.
Jeong, S. H., Lee, S. H., Kim, G. H., Seo, H. J., and Kim, T. H., "Computer Simulation of U-Channel for Under-Rail Roll Forming Using Rigid-Plastic Finite Element Methods," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 201, No. 1-3, pp. 118-122, 2008. crossref(new window)

55.
Chung, K., Barlat, F., Brem, J. C., Lege, D. J., and Richmond, O., "Blank Shape Design for a Planar Anisotropic Sheet Based on Ideal Forming Design Theory and FEM Analysis," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 105-120, 1997. crossref(new window)

56.
Lee, C. H. and Huh, H., "Three Dimensional Multi-Step Inverse Analysis for the Optimum Blank Design in Sheet Metal Forming Processes," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vols. 80-81, pp. 76-82, 1998. crossref(new window)

57.
Park, S. H., Yoon, J. W., Yang, D. Y., and Kim, Y. H., "Optimum Blank Design in Sheet Metal Forming by the Deformation Path Iteration Method," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1217-1232, 1999. crossref(new window)

58.
Geiger, M. and Vollertsen, F., "The Mechanisms of Laser Forming," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 42, No. 1, pp. 301-304, 1993. crossref(new window)

59.
Mori, K., Yamamoto, M., and Osakada, K., "Determination of Hammering Sequence in Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Using a Genetic Algorithm," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 60, No. 1-4, pp. 463-468, 1996. crossref(new window)

60.
Park, J. J. and Kim, Y. H., "Fundamental Studies on the Incremental Sheet Metal Forming Technique," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 140, No. 1-3, pp. 447-453, 2003. crossref(new window)

61.
Shim, D. S., Yang, D. Y., Kim, K. H., Han, M. S., and Chung, S. W., "Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Cold Incremental Rolling of Doubly Curved Plates for Process," CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 58, No. 1, pp. 239-242, 2009. crossref(new window)

62.
Yoon, J. W., Barlat, F., Chung, K., Pourboghrat, F., and Yang, D. Y., "Influence of Initial Back Stress on the Earing Prediction of Drawn Cups for Planar Anisotropic Aluminum Sheets," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vols. 80-81, pp. 433-437, 1998. crossref(new window)

63.
Keum, Y. T. and Lee, K. B., "Sectional Finite Element Analysis of Forming Processes for Aluminum-Alloy Sheet Metals," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 10, pp. 1911-1933, 2000. crossref(new window)

64.
Yoshihara, S., MacDonald, B. J., Nishimura, H., Yamamoto, H., and Manabe, K., "Optimisation of Magnesium Alloy Stamping with Local Heating and Cooling Using the Finite Element Method," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vols. 153-154, pp. 319-322, 2004. crossref(new window)

65.
Ji, Y. H. and Park, J. J., "Formability of Magnesium AZ31 Sheet in the Incremental Forming at Warm Temperature," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 201, No. 1-3, pp. 354-358, 2008. crossref(new window)

66.
Lee, M. G., Kim, S. J., Wagoner, R. H., Chung, K., and Kim, H. Y., "Constitutive Modeling for Anisotropic /Asymmetric Hardening Behavior of Magnesium Alloy Sheets: Application to Sheet Springback," International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 25, No. 1, pp. 70-104, 2009. crossref(new window)

67.
Zhou, Y. and Neale, K. W., "Predictions of Forming Limit Diagrams Using a Rate-Sensitive Crystal Plasticity Model," International Journal of Mechanical Sciences, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 1-20, 1995. crossref(new window)

68.
Chung, W. J., Yoon, J. W., and Cuitino, A., "Study on Phenomenological and Crystal Plasticity Models to Predict Anisotropic Behaviors for Aluminum Alloy Sheets," Transactions of Materials Processing, Vol. 15, No. 8 pp. 574-580, 2006. crossref(new window)

69.
Shim, J. K. and Keum, Y. T., "Computer Simulation of Hemispherical Sheet Forming Process Using Crystal Plasticity," Transactions of Materials Processing, Vol. 16, No. 4, pp. 276-281, 2007. crossref(new window)

70.
Oliveira, D. A. and Worswick, M. J., "Electromagnetic Forming of Aluminum Alloy Sheet," Journal de Physique Archives IV, Vol. 110, pp. 293-298, 2003.

71.
Noh, H. G., An, W. J., Song, W. J., Kang, B. S., and Kim, J., "Experimental and Numerical Study on Patterned Emboss Forming Using Electromagnetic Forces," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 16, No. 7, pp. 1447-1454, 2015. crossref(new window)

72.
Lee, Y. H., Kim, H. K., Noh, H. G., An, W. J., and Kim, J., "Prediction of the Formability Enhancement from Electromagnetic Forming due to Interaction between Tool and Blank Sheet," Transactions of Materials Processing, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 199-204, 2015. crossref(new window)

73.
Park, H. I., Kim, D. Y., Lee, J. W., Kim, J. H., Lee, M. G., et al., "Experimental Study on Electromagnetic Forming of High Strength Steel Sheets with Different Dimensions of Aluminum Driver Plate," Proc. of the 6th International Conference on High Speed Forming, DOI No. 10.17877/DE290R-15600, pp. 237-242, 2014. crossref(new window)

74.
Seong, D. Y., Haque, M. Z., Kim, J. B., Stoughton, T. B., and Yoon, J. W., "Suppression of Necking in Incremental Sheet Forming," International Journal of Solids and Structures, Vol. 51, No. 15-16, pp. 2840-2849, 2014. crossref(new window)

75.
Shim, D. S., Yang, D. Y., Kim, K. H., Chung, S. W., and Han, M. S., "Investigation into Forming Sequences for the Incremental Forming of Doubly Curved Plates Using the Line Array Roll Set (LARS) Process," International Journal of Machine Tools Manufacture, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 214-218, 2010. crossref(new window)

76.
Nguyen, D. T. and Kim Y. S., "A Numerical Study on Establishing the Forming Limit Curve and Indicating the Formability of Complex Shape in Incremental Sheet Forming Process," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 14, No. 12, pp. 2087-2093, 2013. crossref(new window)

77.
Quan, G. Z., Ku, T. W., and Kang, B. S., "Improvement of Formability for Multi-Point Bending Process of AZ31B Sheet Material Using Elastic Cushion," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 1023-1030, 2011. crossref(new window)

78.
Zhang, Y. J., Kim, J. B., Song, J. H., Lee, G. A., Lee, H. J., et al., "FEM Analysis for Laser Bending Process of DP980 Steel Sheet," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 315-321, 2015. crossref(new window)

79.
Kim, S. B., Huh, H., Bok, H. H., and Moon, M. B., "Forming Limit Diagram of Auto-Body Steel Sheets for High-Speed Sheet Metal Forming," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 211, No. 5, pp. 851-862, 2011. crossref(new window)

80.
Lee, E. H., Hwang, J. S., Lee, C. W., Yang, D. Y., and Yang, W. H., "A Local Heating Method by Near-Infrared Rays for Forming of Non-Quenchable Advanced High-Strength Steels," Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Vol. 214, No. 8, pp. 784-793, 2014. crossref(new window)

81.
Seong, D. Y., Jung, C. G., Yang, D. Y., Kim, J. H., Chung, W. J., et al., "Bendable Metallic Sandwich Plates with a Sheared Dimple Core," Scripta Materialia, Vol. 63, No. 1, pp. 81-84, 2010. crossref(new window)

82.
Ahn, D. G., "Research Trends of Metallic Sandwich Plates with Single Layer Periodically Repeated Metallic Inner Structures (PRMIS)-Focused on Design, Manufacturing and Formability," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf.-Green Tech., Vol. 2, No. 4, pp. 377-391, 2015. crossref(new window)

83.
Kim, J. T., Jeon, Y. P., Kim, B. M., and Kang, C. G., "Die Design for a Center Pillar Part by Process Analysis of Hot Stamping and Its Experimental Verification," Int. J. Precis. Eng. Manuf., Vol. 13, No. 9, pp. 1501-1507, 2012. crossref(new window)

84.
Jung, K. H., Kim, D. K., Im, Y. T., and Lee, Y. S., "Crystal Plasticity Finite Element Analysis of Texture Evolution during Rolling of FCC Polycrystalline Metal," Materials Transactions, Vol. 54, No. 5, pp. 769-775, 2013. crossref(new window)

85.
Kim, J. B. and Yoon, J. W., "Necking Behavior of AA 6022-T4 Based on the Crystal Plasticity and Damage Models," International Journal of Plasticity, Vol. 73, pp. 3-23, 2015. crossref(new window)

86.
Chung, W. J., Chung, Y. C., and Kim, W. S., "A Robust Prediction Method of Surface Deflection Using Stoning Simulation and Curvature Analysis," Steel Research International, Vol. 86, No. 8, pp. 886-893, 2015. crossref(new window)

87.
Kim, J. H. and Chung, W. J., "A Study on the Surface Deflection in Rectangular Embossing Considering Planar Anisotropy," Transactions of Materials Processing, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 310-316, 2013. crossref(new window)

88.
Thuillier, S., Le Port, A., and Manach, P.-Y., "Surface Defects in Sheet Metal Forming: A Simulative Laboratory Device and Comparison with FE Analysis," Proc. of American Institute of Physics Conference, DOI No. 10.1063/1.3623693, pp. 839-846, 2011. crossref(new window)