Advanced SearchSearch Tips
A new approach for identification of the genus Paralia (Bacillariophyta) in Korea based on morphology and morphometric analyses
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : ALGAE
  • Volume 31, Issue 1,  2016, pp.1-16
  • Publisher : The Korean Society of Phycology
  • DOI : 10.4490/algae.2016.31.3.7
 Title & Authors
A new approach for identification of the genus Paralia (Bacillariophyta) in Korea based on morphology and morphometric analyses
Yun, Suk Min; Lee, Sang Deuk; Park, Joon Sang; Lee, Jin Hwan;
  PDF(new window)
Paralia species have been frequently reported as P. sulcata in Korea, despite the species diversity within the genus. To understand the species diversity of Paralia in Korea, we collected phytoplankton samples at 79 sites from April 2006 to April 2015. Five Paralia species, P. fenestrata, P. guyana, P. marina, P. cf. obscura, and P. sulcata, were observed during this study, and we described their fine structure in terms of quantitative and qualitative morphological characteristics. To provide additional criteria to identify Paralia species more clearly, we morphometrically analysed four quantitative characteristics on valve diameter: pervalvar axis / diameter, internal linking spines / diameter, marginal linking spines / diameter, and fenestrae/diameter using non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS). MDS analysis distinguished four Paralia species: P. guyana, P. marina, P. cf. obscura, and P. sulcata, with the exception of P. fenestrata. This new approach in using morphometric analysis is useful for the accurate identification of Paralia species.
diatom;morphometric analysis;non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS);Paralia;taxonomy;
 Cited by
Memory-improving Effects of Fermented Sea Tangle Saccharina japonica in Normal Mice, Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 2016, 49, 2, 131  crossref(new windwow)
Clarke, K. R. 1993. Non-parametric multivariate analyses of changes in community structure. Aust. J. Ecol. 18:117-143. crossref(new window)

Clarke, K. R. & Ainsworth, M. 1993. A method of linking multivariate community structure to environmental variables. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 92:205-219. crossref(new window)

Clarke, K. R. & Warwick, R. M. 2001. Changes in marine communities: an approach to statistical analysis and interpretation. 2nd ed. Primer-E, Plymouth, 172 pp.

Cleve, P. T. 1873. On diatoms from the Arctic Sea. Bihang till Kongliga Svenska Vetenskaps-Akademiens Handlingar 1:1-28.

Crawford, R. M. 1979. Taxonomy and frustular structure of the marine centric diatom Paralia sulcata. J. Phycol. 15:200-210. crossref(new window)

Crawford, R. M., Sims, P. A. & Hajós, M. 1990. The morphology and taxonomy of the centric diatom genus Paralia. I. Paralia siberica comb. nov. Diatom Res. 5:241-252. crossref(new window)

Droop, S. J. M. 1994. Morphological variation in Diploneis smithii and D. fusca (Bacillariophyceae). Arch. Protistenkd. 144:249-270. crossref(new window)

Droop, S. J. M., Mann, D. G. & Lokhorst, G. M. 2000. Spatial and temporal stability of demes in Diploneis smithii D. fusca (Bacillariophyta) supports a narrow species concept. Phycologia 39:527-546. crossref(new window)

Ehrenberg, C. G. 1838. Die Infusionshierchen als vollkommene Organismen: Ein Blick in das tiefere organische Leben der Natur. Leopold Voss, Leipzig, 548 pp.

Field, J. G., Clarke, K. R. & Warwick, R. M. 1982. A practical strategy for analysing multispecies distribution patterns. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 8:37-52. crossref(new window)

Garcia, M., Talgatti, D., Souza-Mosimann, R. & Laudares-Silva, R. 2012. Morphology and distribution of Paralia Heiberg (Coscinodiscophyceae) in southern Brazil. Iheringia Sér. Bot. 67:225-235.

Goldman, N., Paddock, T. B. B. & Shak, K. M. 1990. Quantitative analysis of shape variation in populations of Surirella fastuosa. Diatom Res. 5:25-42. crossref(new window)

Grunow, A. 1884. Die Diatomeen von Franz Josefs-Land. Denkschriften der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften 48:53-112.

Guiry, M. D. & Guiry, G. M. 2016. AlgaeBase. World-wide electronic publication, National University of Ireland, Galway. Available from: Accessed Mar 9, 2016.

Hajós, S. M. 1973. Faciological and stratigraphic importance of the Miocene diatoms in Hungary. Nova Hedwig. Beih. 45:365-376.

Hasle, G. R. & Fryxell, G. A. 1970. Diatoms: cleaning and mounting for light and electron microscopy. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 89:469-474. crossref(new window)

Heiberg, P. A. C. 1863. Conspectus criticus diatomacearum danicarum. Wilhelm Priors Forlag, Copenhagen, 135 pp.

Janisch, C. 1862. Zur charakteristik des Guano's von verschieden Fundorten. Abh. Schles. Ges. Vaterl. Cult. Abth. Naturwiss. 2:1-29.

Konno, S. & Jordan, R. W. 2008. Paralia longispina sp. nov., an extant species from Palau and Haha-jima, western North Pacific. In Likhoshway, Y. (Ed.) Proc. 19th Int. Diatom Symp., Biopress Ltd., Bristol, pp. 55-69.

Kützing, F. T. 1844. Die Kieselschaligen. Bacillarien oder Diatomeen. Nordhausen, 152 pp.

Loseva, E. I. 1988. The valve ultrastructure of fossil Paralia sulcata (Bacillariophyceae). In Simola, H. (Ed.) Proc. 10th Int. Diatom Symp., Koeltz, Koenigstein, pp. 83-91.

MacGillivary, M. L. & Kaczmarska, I. 2012. Genetic differentiation within the Paralia longispina (Bacillariophyta) species complex. Botany 90:205-222. crossref(new window)

MacGillivary, M. L. & Kaczmarska, I. 2013. Lectotypification of Paralia sulcata and description of P. obscura sp. nov. (Bacillariophyta) from the Ehrenberg Collection. Diatom Res. 28:221-235. crossref(new window)

MacGillivary, M. L. & Kaczmarska, I. 2015. Paralia (Bacillariophyta) stowaways in ship ballast: implications for biogeography and diversity of the genus. J. Biol. Res. Thessalon. 22:2. crossref(new window)

McQuoid, M. R. & Nordberg, K. 2003. The diatom Paralia sulcata as an environmental indicator species in coastal sediments. Estuar. Coast. Shelf. Sci. 56:339-354. crossref(new window)

Mou, D. & Stoermer, E. F. 1992. Separating Tabellaria (Bacillariophyceae) shape groups based on Fourier descriptors. J. Phycol. 28:386-395. crossref(new window)

Pappas, J. L., Fowler, G. W. & Stoermer, E. F. 2001. Calculating shape descriptors from Fourier analysis: shape analysis of Asterionella (Heterokontophyta, Bacillariophyceae). Phycologia 40:440-456. crossref(new window)

Pappas, J. L. & Stoermer, E. F. 2003. Legendre shape descriptors and shape group determination of specimens in the Cymbella cistula species complex. Phycologia 42:90-97. crossref(new window)

Řeháková, Z. 1975. Marine diatoms in Helvetian sediments of the central Paratethys. Nova Hedwig. Beih. 53:293-308.

Rhode, K. M., Pappas, J. L. & Stormer, E. F. 2001. Quantitative analysis of shape variation in type and modern populations of Meridion (Bacillariophyceae). J. Phycol. 37:175-183. crossref(new window)

Round, F. E., Crawford, R. M. & Mann, D. G. 1990. The diatoms: biology and morphology of the genera. Cambridge University Press, London, 747 pp.

Sawai, Y., Nagumo, T. & Toyoda, K. 2005. Three extant species of Paralia (Bacillariophyceae) along the coast of Japan. Phycologia 44:517-529. crossref(new window)

Schmidt, A. 1874-1959. Atlas der Diatomaceen-Kunde. O. R. Reisland, Leipzig, 1976 pp.

Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S. & Eliceiri, K. W. 2012. NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nat. Methods 9:671-675. crossref(new window)

Simonsen, R. 1974. The diatom plankton of the Indian Ocean Expedition of R/V “Meteor” 1964-1965. “Meteor” Forsch. Ergeb. 19:1-107.

Sims, P. A. & Crawford, R. M. 2002. The morphology and taxonomy of the marine centric diatom genus Paralia. II. Paralia crenulata, P. fausta and the new species, P. hendeyi. Diatom Res. 17:363-382. crossref(new window)

Smith, W. 1856. A synopsixs of the British Diatomaceae. II. John van Voorst, London, 104 pp.

Stabell, B. 1996. Paralia thybergii sp. nov.: another fossil Paralia. Diatom Res. 11:155-163. crossref(new window)

Steinman, A. D. & Ladewski, T. B. 1987. Quantitative shape analysis of Eunotia pectinalis (Bacillariophyceae) and its application to seasonal distribution patterns. Phycologia 26:467-477. crossref(new window)

Stoermer, E. F. & Ladewski, T. B. 1982. Quantitative analysis of shape variation in type and modern populations of Gomphoneis herculeana. Nova Hedwig. Beih. 73:347-386.

Stoermer, E. F., Qi, Y. -Z. & Ladewski, T. B. 1986. A quantitative investigation of shape variation in Didymosphenia (Lyngbye) M. Schmidt (Bacillariophyta). Phycologia 25:494-502. crossref(new window)

Theriot, E. & Ladewski, T. B. 1986. Morphometric analysis of shape of specimens from the neotype of Tabellaria flocculosa (Bacillariophyceae). Am. J. Bot. 73:224-229. crossref(new window)