Making Levels More Challenging with a Cooperative Strategy of Ghosts in Pac-Man Choi, Taeyeong; Na, Hyeon-Suk;
The artificial intelligence (AI) of Non-Player Companions (NPC), especially opponents, is a key element to adjust the level of games in game design. Smart opponents can make games more challenging as well as allow players for diverse experiences, even in the same game environment. Since game users interact with more than one opponent in most of today's games, collaboration control of opponent characters becomes more important than ever before. In this paper, we introduce a cooperative strategy based on the A* algorithm for enemies' AI in the Pac-Man game. A survey from 17 human testers shows that the levels with our collaborative opponents are more difficult but interesting than those with either the original Pac-Man's personalities or the non-cooperative greedy opponents.
Artificial Intelligence;Game Level Design;Behavior Pattern of NPC;Cooperative Multi-agents;
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