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Formation, Breakage and Reformation of Humic Flocs by Inorganic and Organic Coagulants
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 Title & Authors
Formation, Breakage and Reformation of Humic Flocs by Inorganic and Organic Coagulants
Kam, Sang-Kyu; Lee, Min-Gyu; Kang, Kyung-Ho; Xu, Mei-Lan;
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The floc formation, breakage and reformation of humic acid by inorganic (alum and PAC) and organic coagulants (cationic polyelectrolytes) at several conditions (pH, ionic strength and floc breakage time) were examined and compared among the coagulants at different conditions using a continuous optical monitoring method, with controlled mixing and stirring conditions. For alum, the shapes of formation, breakage and reformation curves at different pH (5 and 7) were different, but the shapes and the sizes of initial floc and reformed floc were nearly the same in the absence and presence of electrolytes at pH 7. For PAC, similar shapes of the curves were obtained at different pH and ionic strength, but the sizes were different, except for those of reformed flocs at different pH. However, for these coagulants, reformed flocs after floc breakage, occurred irreversibly for all the conditions used in this study. For organic coagulants, the time to attain the initial plateau floc size, the extent of floc strength at high shear rate and reversibility of reformed floes were different, depending floc formation mechanism. Especially, for the cationic polyelectrolyte forming humic flocs by charge neutralization or electrostatic patch effect mechanism, reformed flocs occurred reversibly, regardless of pH and floc breakage time, but occurred irreversibly in the presence of electrolytes.
Floc breakage;Floc strength;Floc recovery;Humic acid;Inorganic and organic coagulants;Monitoring;
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