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Evaluation of Exposure to Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds by Utilizing Emission Characteristics and Emission Factor of Household Mosquito Repellents
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 Title & Authors
Evaluation of Exposure to Indoor Volatile Organic Compounds by Utilizing Emission Characteristics and Emission Factor of Household Mosquito Repellents
Jo, Wan-Kuen; Lee, Jong-Hyo;
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This study was designed to evaluate qualitatively and quantitatively the pollutant compositions, which were emitted from three types of mosquito repellents(MRs)(mat-, liquid-vaporized, and coil-type) by utilizing a 50-L environmental chamber. A qualitative analysis revealed that 42 compounds were detected on the gas chromatography/mass spectrometer system, and that the detection frequency depended upon chemical types. Nine of the 42 compounds exhibited a detection frequency of 100%. Four aromatic compounds(benzene, ethyl benzene, toluene, and xylene) were detected in all test MRs. The concentration equilibriums in the environmental chamber were achieved within 180 min after sample introduction. The coil-type MR represented higher chamber concentrations as compared with the mat- or liquid-vaporized-type MR, with respect to the target compounds except for naphthalene. In particular, the chamber concentrations of ethyl benzene, associated with the use of coil-type MR, were between 0.9 and whereas those of mat- and liquid-vaporized-type MRs we~e between 0.5 and and 0.3 and , respectively. However, naphthalene concentrations in the chamber, where a liquid-vaporized-type MR was placed, were measured as between 17.8 and , but not detected in the chamber, where a mat- or coil-type MR was placed. The empirical model fitted well with the time-series concentrations in the environmental chamber(in most cases, determination coefficient, ≿ 0.9), thereby suggesting that the model was suitable for testing emissions. In regards to the target compounds except for benzene, although they were emitted from the MRs, health risk from individual exposure to them were estimated not to be significant when comparing exposure levels with no observed adverse exposure levels or lowest observed adverse exposure levels of corresponding compounds. However, it was concluded that the use of MRs could be an important indoor source as regards benzene.
Mosquito repellent;Mat-type;Liquid-vaporized;Coil-type;Chamber concentration;
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