JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Development of Sea Peach Halocynthia aurantium
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effects of Temperature and Salinity on Development of Sea Peach Halocynthia aurantium
Lee, Chu; Park, Min-Woo; Lee, Chae-Sung; Kim, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Wan-Ki;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The solitary ascidian, Halocynthia aurantium, which is commonly called the sea peach because of its coloration and general shape, is a valuable organism of benthic marine population in the northern region of the East Sea, Korea. It is seldom found at a depth of less than 10 meters and the sea peach is frequently observed in large populations between 20 and 100 meters. It appears to prefer attachment to vertical rocks faces and artificial cement blocks exposed to the currents. Mass mortality and reduction of resources in sea peach, H. aurantium, were occurred in the benthic area of the northern region of the East Sea because of the rapid fluctuation of environmental factors such as temperature and salinity due to mass rainfall in summer and going up north of a strong warm current in winter. Therefore, we examined the effects of temperature and salinity on embryonic development of fertilized eggs, tadpole larva to metamorphosis, and attachment to siphon development. Laboratory-raised larvae were studied using a two-factorial experimental design with four levels of temperature(8, 12, 16 and ) and four levels of salinity(20, 25, 30 and 34 psu). The ascidian larvae of H. aurantium survived environmental conditions between temperature of and salinity of 25~34 psu and exhibited positive growth at and 30~34 psu. Fertilized eggs have not developed at lower salinity of 20 psu irrespective of temperature range tested and have showed an abnormal development at the salinity of 25 psu between higher temperatures of 20 and . This result suggests that temperature increase and salinity reduction depending on environmental fluctuation may have significant impacts on population variation of H. aurantium in the northern region of the East Sea.
 Keywords
Ascidian;Embryonic development;Larvae;Temperature;Salinity;Halocynthia aurantium;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Gotshall D. W., 1994, Guide to marine invertebrates: Alaska to Baja California. Sea Challengers, Monterey, CA., 105

2.
Baik K. K., S. K. Chung and Y. S. Chung, 1986, Studies on the spawning season of sea squirts, Halocynthia roretzi(von Drasche) and Halocynthia aurantium(Pallas) in the coast of Kangwon province, Bulletin of Fisheries Research & Development Agency, 37, 179-183

3.
Ivanov B. G., 1993, An interesting mode of feeding of snow crabs, Chionoecetes spp.(Crustacea, Decapoda, Majida), on the ascidian Halocynthia aurantium, Zoology, 72, 27-33

4.
Jewett S. C. and H. M. Feder, 1981, Epifaunal invertebrates of the continental shelf of the eastern Bering and Chukchi Seas, University of Washington Press, 1131-1153

5.
Kessler D. W., 1985, Alaska's saltwater fishes and other sea life: a field guide, Alaska Northwest Publication, Anchorage, Alaska

6.
Ushakov P. V., 1955, Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Tunicata, Academy of Sciences of the USSR Zoological Institute, 307-312

7.
Honegger T. G. and R. Koyanagi, 2008, The ascidian egg envelope in fertilization: structural and molecular features, The International Journal of Developmental Biology, 52, 527-533 crossref(new window)

8.
Koyanagi R., T. G. Honegger and R. Koyanagi, 2003, Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of an ascidian egg, Developmental Growth and Differentiation, 45, 209-218 crossref(new window)

9.
Yoo S. K., 1998, Shallow water aquaculture, Gooduck Publishing Company, 205-220

10.
Park Y. J., Y. G. Rho, J. H. Lee and J. M. Lee, 1991, Studies on spawning and seed collection of sea squirt, Halocynthia roretzi(Drasche), Bulletin of Fisheries Research & Development Agency, 45, 165-173

11.
Pyen C. K., Y. Z. Chang and Y. G. Ro, 1977, Studies on the early development and seed collection of the sea squirt, Cynthia roretzi, Bulletin of Fisheries Research & Development Agency, 18, 113-122

12.
Yoo S. K. and H. Y. Ryu, 1982, The metamorphosis of the sea squirt, Halocynthia roretzi: hatching, settlement and tail reduction of the tadpole larva, Bulletin of Fisheries Research & Development Agency, 28, 177-183

13.
Thiyagarajan V. and P. Y. Qian, 2003, Effect of temperature, salinity and delayed attachment on development of the solitary ascidian Styela plicata(Lesueur), Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 290, 133-146 crossref(new window)

14.
Grave C., 1920, Amaroucium pellucidum (Leidy) from constellatum (Verrill) I. The activities and reactions of the tadpole larva, Journal of Experimental Zoology, 30, 239-257 crossref(new window)

15.
Mchenry M. J., 2005, The morphology, behavior, and biomechanics of swimming in ascidian larvae, Canadian Journal of Zoology, 83, 62-74 crossref(new window)

16.
Mchenry M. J. and S. N. Patek, 2003, The evolution of larval morphology and swimming performance in ascidians, Evolution, 58, 1209-1224 crossref(new window)