Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Volatile Fatty Acids and Indoles in Pig Slurry and Dog Excrement by Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction Method with Gas Chromatography
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Rapid and Simultaneous Determination of Volatile Fatty Acids and Indoles in Pig Slurry and Dog Excrement by Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction Method with Gas Chromatography
Kim, Hyun-Jung; Yu, Mee-Seon; Yang, Sung-Bong;
  PDF(new window)
A rapid and simple method for the quantitative determination of volatile fatty acids (VFAs; propionic acid, n-butyric acid, i-valeric acid and n-valeric acid) and indoles (phenol, p-cresol, 4-ethyl phenol, indole and skatole) in pig slurry and dog excrement using solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) coupled to gas chromatography was evaluated. DVB/CAR/PDMS (Divinylbenzene/Carboxen/Polydimethylsiloxane) fiber was used to extract the target compounds in aqueous media. Sample amount and adsorption time was standardized for the routine analysis. Detection limits were from 0.11 to for VFAs and from 0.12 to for indoles and the correlations observed () were 0.975~1.000. This method was applied to the pig slurry, fertilizer, compost and dog excrement. In nearly all cases, the indoles were detected in concentrations of higher than their limits of detection (DOLs). But the VFAs in swine manure were below their DOLs.
SPME;Pig slurry;Dog excrement;Odor;Volatile fatty acids;Indoles;
 Cited by
Abalos, M., Bayona, J.M., Pawliszyn, J., 2000, Development of a headspace solid-phase microextraction procedure for the determination of free volatile fatty acids in waste waters, J. Chromatography A, 873, 107-115. crossref(new window)

Cai, L., Koziel, J.A., Lo, Y.C., Hoff, S.J., 2006, Characterization of volatile organic compounds and odorants associated with swine barn particulate matter using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry, J. Chromatography A, 1102, 60-72. crossref(new window)

Cruwys, J.A., Dinsdale, R.M., Hawkes, F.R., Hawkes, D.L., 2002, Development of a static headspace gas chromatographic procedure for the routine analysis of volatile fatty acids in wastewaters, J. Chromato-graphy A, 945, 195-209. crossref(new window)

Godayol, A., Alonso, M., Besalu, Sanchez, J.M., Antico, E., 2011, Odour-causing organic compounds in wastewater treatment plants: Evaluation of headspace solid-phase microextraction as a concentration technique, J. Chromatography A, 1218, 4863-4868. crossref(new window)

Hartung, J., Phillips, V.R., 1994, Control of gaseous emissions from livestock buildings and manure stores, J. Agric. Engng Res. 57, 173-189. crossref(new window)

Herber, A.J., Bogan, B.W., 2006. The study and regulation of agricultural air quality in the US. In: Aneja, V.P., et al. (Eds.), Proceedings: Workshop on Agricultural Air Quality: State of the Science. Potomac, MD, 32-35.

Hobbs, P.J., Misselbrook, T.H., Pain, B.F., 1998, Emission rates of odorous compounds from pig slurries, J. Sci. Food Agric., 77, 341-348. crossref(new window)

Hobbs, P.J., Pain, B.F., 1996, Reduction of odorous compounds in fresh pig slurry by dietry control of crude protein, J. Sci. Food Agric., 71, 508-514. crossref(new window)

Hwang, O.H., Yang, S.H., Jeon, J.H., Kim, J.K., Choi, D.Y., Cho, S.B., 2013b, The effect of the addition levels of odor reducing contents on the concentration of volatile fatty acid and volatile organic compound in pig slurry, J. Anim. Environ. Sc. 19(2), 101-108 (Korean). crossref(new window)

Hwang, O.H., Yang, S.H., Jeon, J.H., Kwag, J.H., Choi, D.Y., Yang, S.B., Kim, D.H., Cho, S.B., 2013a, The effect of the addition of carbohydrate on the concentration of odorous compounds in pig slurry, J. Anim. Environ. Sc. 19(1), 1-8 (Korean). crossref(new window)

Jensen, M.T., Jensen, B.B., 1994, Gas chromatographic determination of indole and 3-methylindole (skatole) in bacterial culture media, intestinal contents and faeces, J. Chromatography B, 655, 275-280. crossref(new window)

Kim, K.H., Szulejko, J.E., 2013, A theoretical consideration on the unfeasibilty of an analytical method recommended for volatile fatty acids (VFA) by the offensive odor prevention law, J. Korean Soc. Odor Res. Eng., 12(1), 1-7. crossref(new window)

Lambropoulou, D.A., Konstantinou, I.K., Albanis, T.A., 2007, Recent developments in headspace micro -extraction techniques for the analysis of environmental contaminants in different matrices, J. Chromatography A, 1152, 70-96. crossref(new window)

Leong, J., Morel, P.C.H., Purchas, R.W., Wilkinson, B.H.P., 2011, Effects of dietary components including garlic on concentrations of skatole and indole in subcutaneous fat of female pigs, Meat Sciences, 88, 45-50. crossref(new window)

Lee, H.D., Jeon, S.B., Choi, W.J., Lee, S.S., Lee, M.H., Oh, K.J., 2013, A novel assessment of odor sources using instrumental analysis combined with resident monitoring records for an industrial area in Korea, Atmospheric Environment, 74, 277-290. crossref(new window)

Mitsuda, M., Tanamura, T., Asano, Y., Fujii, Y., Kubo, Y., 2012, Measurement survey on pet odor - odor emission rate and odor control, Jap. Soc. Human -Environment System, 36th Symposium, 37-40.

Ni, J.-Q., Robarge, W., Xiao, C., Herber, A., 2012, Volatile organic compounds at swine facilities: A critical review, Chemosphere, 89, 769-788. crossref(new window)

Rahman, M.M., Kim, K.H., 2013, Parallel analysis of volatile fatty acids, indole, skatole, phenol and trimethylamine from waste-related source environments, J. Chromatography A, 1314, 241-248. crossref(new window)

Schauberger, G., Lim, T.T., Ni, J.Q., Bundy, D.S., Haymore, B.L., Diehl, C.A., Duggirala, R.K., Herber, A.J., 2013, Empirical model of odor emission from deep-pit swine finishing barns to derive a standarized odor emission factor, Atmospheric Envirnment, 66, 84-90. crossref(new window)

Willig, S., Lacorn, M., Claus, R., 2004, Development of a rapid and accurate method for the determination of key compounds of pig odor, J. Chromatography A, 1038, 11-18. crossref(new window)

Yang, X., Lorjaroenphon, Y., Cadwallader, K., Wang, X., Zhang, Y., Lee, J., 2014, Analysis of particulate -borne odorants emitted from concentrated animal feeding operations, Science of the Total Environment, 490, 322-333. crossref(new window)

Yu, M.S., Lee, J.C., Yang, S.B., Kim, D.H., Cho, S.B., Whang, O.W., 2013, Comparison on usefulness of sampling methods of indoles, in airs from swine facility by Tenax-TA and SPME, J. Env. Sc. Int., 22(12), 1539-1549. crossref(new window)

Yu, M.S., Yang, S.B., Ha, N., 2010, Analysis of volatile fatty acids in air by dynamic SPME., J. Environ. Sci. Int., 19(12), 1447-2010. crossref(new window)