Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Assessing Unit Hydrograph Parameters and Peak Runoff Responses from Storm Rainfall Events: A Case Study in Hancheon Basin of Jeju Island
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Assessing Unit Hydrograph Parameters and Peak Runoff Responses from Storm Rainfall Events: A Case Study in Hancheon Basin of Jeju Island
Kar, Kanak Kanti; Yang, Sung-Kee; Lee, Jun-Ho;
  PDF(new window)
Estimation of runoff peak is needed to assess water availability, in order to support the multifaceted water uses and functions, hence to underscore the modalities for efficient water utilization. The magnitude of storm rainfall acts as a primary input for basin level runoff computation. The rainfall-runoff linkage plays a pivotal role in water resource system management and feasibility level planning for resource distribution. Considering this importance, a case study has been carried out in the Hancheon basin of Jeju Island where distinctive hydrological characteristics are investigated for continuous storm rainfall and high permeable geological features. The study aims to estimate unit hydrograph parameters, peak runoff and peak time of storm rainfalls based on Clark unit hydrograph method. For analyzing observed runoff, five storm rainfall events were selected randomly from recent years' rainfall and HEC-hydrologic modeling system (HMS) model was used for rainfall-runoff data processing. The simulation results showed that the peak runoff varies from 164 to 548 m3/sec and peak time (onset) varies from 8 to 27 hours. A comprehensive relationship between Clark unit hydrograph parameters (time of concentration and storage coefficient) has also been derived in this study. The optimized values of the two parameters were verified by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and runoff comparison performance were analyzed by root mean square error (RMSE) and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) estimation. After statistical analysis of the Clark parameters significance level was found in 5% and runoff performances were found as 3.97 RMSE and 0.99 NSE, respectively. The calibration and validation results indicated strong coherence of unit hydrograph model responses to the actual situation of historical storm runoff events.
Storm rainfall;Unit hydrograph;Peak runoff;HEC-HMS;ANOVA;
 Cited by
Pegram, G., Parak, M., 2004, A review of the regional maximum flood and rational formula using geomor-phological information and observed floods, Water SA, 30(3), 377-392.

Sherman, L.K., 1932, Stream flow from rainfall by unit graph method, Water Resources Bulletin, 12(2), 381-392.

Clark, C.O., 1945, Storage and the unit hydrograph, Trans. ASCE, 110, 1419-1446.

Sabol, G.V., 1988, Clark unit hydrograph and R parameter estimation, Journal of Hydraulics Engineering, 114(1), 103-111. crossref(new window)

Johnstone, D., Cross, W.P., 1949, Elements of applied hydrology, Ronald Press, New York, USA.

Snyder, F.F., 1938, Synthetic unit graphs, Trans. American Geophysical Union, 19, 447-454. crossref(new window)

Soil conservation service (SCS), 1964, SCS national engineering handbook, Section 4: Hydrology, USDA, Washington-DC, USA.

Capece, J.C., Campbell, K.L., Baldwin, L.B., 1988, Estimating runoff peak rates and volumes from flat, high-water-table watersheds, Trans. ASAE, 31(1), 74-81. crossref(new window)

Wooding, R.A., 1965, A hydraulic model for the catchment-stream problem, Part I: kinematic wave theory, Journal of Hydrology, 3, 254-267. crossref(new window)

USACE HEC-HMS, 1995, A procedure for evaluating runoff parameters for HRAP cells from USGA digital elevation models-drafts, Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC), Davis, USA.

Kim, Y.S., Yang, S.K., Yu, K., Kim, D.S., 2014, Flood runoff calculation using disaster monitoring CCTV system, Journal of Environmental Science International, 23(4), 571-584. crossref(new window)

Moon, D.C., Jung, K.S., Park, W.B., Kim, Y.C., 2014, An evaluation of the flood control effect according to the Hancheon reservoir operation, Journal of Korea Water Resources Association, 47(2), 107-117. crossref(new window)

Chung, I.M., Lee, J., Kim, J.T., Na, H., Kim, N.W., 2011, Development of threshold runoff simulation method for runoff analysis of Jeju Island, Journal of Environmental Science International, 20(10), 1347-1355. crossref(new window)

Jung, W.Y., Yang, S.K., Kim, D.S., 2014, Flood discharge to decision of parameters in Han stream watershed, Journal of Environmental Science International, 23(4), 533-541. crossref(new window)

Soil Conservation Service (SCS), 1972, SCS national engineering handbook: Hydrology, USDA, Washington-DC, USA.

Kar, K.K., Yang, S.K., Jung, W.Y., 2014, Determination of surface runoff for recent year's rainfall over Hancheon basin in Jeju Island, Proceedings of Korean Environmental Sciences Society Conference, Daegu, 23, 655-657.

Viessman, W.J., Lewis, G.L. Knapp, J.W., 1989, Introduction to hydrology, 3rd ed., Harper and Row, New York, USA.

Yang, S.K., Kim, D.S., Jung, W.Y., 2014, Rainfall-runoff characteristics in a Jeju stream considering antecedent precipitation, Journal of Environmental Science International, 23(4), 553-560. crossref(new window)


Kirpich, Z.P., 1940, Time of concentration of small agricultural catchments, Journal of Civil Engineering, ASCE, 10(6), 362-365.

Gophen, M., 2012, The ecology of Keratella cochlearis in lake Kinneret (Israel), Open Journal of Modern Hydrology, 2(1), 1-6. crossref(new window)

Nash, J.E., Sutcliffe, J.V., 1970, River flow forecasting through conceptual models, Part-I: a discussion of principles, Journal of Hydrology, 10(3), 282-290. crossref(new window)

USACE Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS), 1998, Technical reference manual,

Kumar, R., Chatterjee, C., Lohani, A.K., Kumar, S., Singh, R.D., 2002, Sensitivity analysis of GIUH based on Clark model for a catchment, Water Resources Management, 16, 263-278. crossref(new window)

Sahoo, B., Chatterjee, C., Raghuwanshi, N.S., Singh, R., Kumar, R., 2006, Flood estimation by GIUH-based Clark and Nash models, Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 11(6), 515-525. crossref(new window)

Ahmad, M.M., Ghumman, A.R., Ahmad, S., 2009, Estimation of Clark's instantaneous unit hydrograph parameters and development of direct surface runoff hydrograph, Water Resources Management, 23, 2417-2435. crossref(new window)

Peters, J., 1993, Application of rainfall-runoff simulation for flood forecasting, Technical Report No.145, US Army Corps of Engineers, Hydrologic Engineering Center, California, USA.

Jung, W.Y., 2013, The estimation of parametric runoff characteristics and flood discharge based on riverine in-situ measurements in Jeju Island, Ph.D. Dissertation, Jeju National University, Jeju-do, South Korea.