JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Performance of shear connectors at elevated temperatures - A review
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Performance of shear connectors at elevated temperatures - A review
Shahabi, S.E.M.; Sulong, N.H. Ramli; Shariati, M.; Shah, S.N.R.;
 Abstract
Shear connectors are key components to ensure the efficient composite action and satisfactory transfer of shear forces at the steel-concrete interface in composite beams. Under hazardous circumstances, such as fire in a building, the performance of a composite beam significantly relies on the performance of shear connectors. Studies on the behavior of shear connectors subjected to elevated temperatures performed in the last decade are reviewed in this paper. The experimental testing of push-out specimens, the design approaches provided by researchers and different codes, the major failure modes, and the finite element modeling of shear connectors are highlighted. The critical research review showed that the strength of a shear connector decreases proportionally with the increase in temperature. Compared with the volume of work published on shear connectors at ambient temperatures, a few studies on the behavior of shear connectors under fire have been conducted. Several areas where additional research is needed are also identified in this paper.
 Keywords
high temperatures;shear connectors;load-slip;composite beam;push-out;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Numerical studies on shear resistance of headed stud connectors in different concretes under Arctic low temperature, Materials & Design, 2016, 112, 184  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
AISC (1993), Load and resistance factor design specification for structural steel buildings, Chicago, IL, USA.

2.
AISC (2005), AISC 360-05, Specification for Structural Steel Buildings; American Institute of Steel Construction Inc., Chicago, IL, USA.

3.
Al-Sa'ady, M.A.Z. (2005), "Effect of previous fire on load-slip relationship at a modified push-out test (experimental study)", J. Eng. Develop., 9(3), 50-60.

4.
Ataei, A., Bradford, M.A. and Valipour, H.R. (2015), "Experimental study of flush end plate beam to CFST column composite joints with deconstructable bolted shear connectors", Eng. Struct., 99, 616-630. crossref(new window)

5.
Benedetti, A. and Mangoni, E. (2007), "Analytical prediction of composite beams response in fire situations", J. Construct. Steel Res., 63(2), 221-228. crossref(new window)

6.
BS 476-20 (1987), BS476: Part 20, Fire Tests on Building Materials and Structures, BSI, London, UK.

7.
BSI, B. (1990), 5950: Part 3: Section 3.1, Code of practice for design of simple and continuous composite beams, British Standards Institution, London, UK.

8.
Building code requirements for structural concrete (ACI 318-05) and commentary (2005), ACI 318R-05, American Concrete Institute.

9.
Chen, L., Li, G. and Jiang, S. (2012), "Experimental studies on the behaviour of headed studs shear connectors at elevated temperatures", Proceedings of the 7th International Conference of Structures in Fire, (M. Fontana, A. Frangi, M. Knobloch Eds.), Zurich, Switzerland.

10.
Choi, S.K., Han, S.H., Nadjai, A., Ali, F., Kim, S.B. and Choi, J.Y. (2009), "Performance of shear studs in fire", In: Applications of Structural Fire Engineering, Czech Technical University, Prague, Czech Republic, pp. 490-495.

11.
Dallam, L. (1968), Push-out Tests of Stud and Channel Shear Connectors in Normal-Weight and Lightweight Concrete Slabs, Bulletin Series, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia.

12.
EN 1992-1-2 (2004), Eurocode 2: Design of Concrete Structures - Part 1-2: General Rules-Structural Fire Design, British Standards Institution.

13.
EN 1993:1-2 (2005), Design of Steel Structures - part 1-2: General rules - Structural Fire Design, British Standares Institution.

14.
EN 1994:1-2 (2005), Design of Composite Steel and Concrete Structures-Part 1-2: General rules-Structural fire design, British Standards Institution.

15.
Fahrni, M. and Tamara, T. (2012), "Finite element analysis of composite steel-concrete beams subjected to fire", Nahrain University College of Engineering Journal (NUCEJ), 15(1), 1-11.

16.
Hosain, M.U. and Pashan, A. (2006), "Channel shear connectors in composite beams: Push-out tests", Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Composite Construction in Steel and Concrete, Kruger National Park, South Africa, July.

17.
Huang, Z., Burgess, I.W. and Plank, R.J. (1999), "The influence of shear connectors on the behaviour of composite steel-framed buildings in fire", J. Construct. Steel Res. 51(3), 219-237. crossref(new window)

18.
ISO 834-1 (1999), Fire Resistante Test - Elements of Building Construction - Part 1: General Requirements, International Standards ISO 834, Geneva, Switzerland.

19.
Kruppa, J. and Zhao, B. (1995), "Fire resistance of composite slabs with profiled steel sheet and of composite steel concrete beams", Part 2, Composite Beams, ECSC Agreement No. 7210, SA 509.

20.
Lu, W., Ma, Z.C., Makelainen, P. and Outinen, J. (2012), "Behaviour of shear connectors in cold-formed steel sheeting at ambient and elevated temperatures", Thin-Wall. Struct., 61, 229-238. crossref(new window)

21.
Lu, W., Ma, Z.C., Makelainen, P. and Outinen, J. (2013), "Design of shot nailed steel sheeting connection at ambient and elevated temperatures", Eng. Struct., 49, 963-972. crossref(new window)

22.
Majdi, Y., Hsu, C.T.T. and Zarei, M. (2014), "Finite element analysis of new composite floors having coldformed steel and concrete slab", Eng. Struct., 77, 65-83. crossref(new window)

23.
Makelainen, P. and Ma, Z. (2000), "Fire resistance of composite slim floor beams", J. Construct. Steel Res., 54(3), 345-363. crossref(new window)

24.
Maleki, S. and Bagheri, S. (2008a), "Behavior of channel shear connectors, Part I: Experimental study", J. Construct. Steel Res., 64, 1333-1340. crossref(new window)

25.
Maleki, S. and Bagheri, S. (2008b), "Behavior of channel shear connectors, Part II: Analytical study", J. Construct. Steel Res., 64, 1341-1348. crossref(new window)

26.
Maleki, S. and Mahoutian, M. (2009), "Experimental and analytical study on channel shear connectors in fiber-reinforced concrete", J. Construct. Steel Res., 65(8-9), 1787-1793. crossref(new window)

27.
Menzies, J. (1971), CP 117 and shear connectors in steel-concrete composite beams made with normal-density or lightweight concrete, Structural Engineer.

28.
Mirza, O. and Uy, B. (2009), "Behavior of headed stud shear connectors for composite steel-concrete beams at elevated temperatures", J. Construct. Steel Res., 65(3), 662-674. crossref(new window)

29.
Mohammadhassani, M., Akib, S., Shariati, M., Suhatril, M. and Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M. (2014), "An experimental study on the failure modes of high strength concrete beams with particular references to variation of the tensile reinforcement ratio", Eng. Fail. Anal., 41, 73-80. crossref(new window)

30.
NEHPR, B. (2000), Recommended Provisions for the Development of Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, Building Seismic Safety Council, Washington, D.C., USA.

31.
O'Connor, M.A. and Martin, D.M. (1998), "Behavior of a multi-story steel framed building subjected to fire attack", J. Construct. Steel Res., 46(1-3), Paper No. 169.

32.
Oven, V., Burgess, I.W., Plank, R.J. and Abdul Wali, A.A. (1997), "An analytical model for the analysis of composite beams with partial interaction", Comput. Struct., 62(3), 493-504. crossref(new window)

33.
Quevedo, R.L. and Silva, V.P. (2013), "Thermal analysis of push-out tests at elevated temperatures", Fire Safety J., 55, 1-14. crossref(new window)

34.
Ranzi, G. and Bradford, M.A. (2007), "Composite beams with both longitudinal and transverse partial interaction subjected to elevated temperatures", Eng. Struct., 29(10), 2737-2750. crossref(new window)

35.
Rodrigues, J.P.C. and Laim, L. (2011), "Behaviour of Perfobond shear connectors at high temperatures", Eng. Struct., 33(10), 2744-2753. crossref(new window)

36.
Rodrigues, J.P.C. and Laim, L. (2014), "Experimental investigation on the structural response of T, T-block and T-Perfobond shear connectors at elevated temperatures", Eng. Struct., 75, 299-314. crossref(new window)

37.
Rose, P., Burgess, I.W., Plank, R.J. and Bailey, C.G. (1998), "The influence of floor slabs on the structural behaviour of composite frames in fire", J. Construct. Steel Res., 46(1-3), Paper No, 181.

38.
Sanada, A.M., Rotter, J.M., Usmani, A.S. and O'Connor, M.A. (2000), "Composite beams in large buildings under fire - numerical modelling and structural behavior", Fire Safety J., 35(3), 165-188. crossref(new window)

39.
Satoshi, S., Michikoshi, S., Kobayashi, Y. and Narihara, H. (2008), "Experimental study on shear strength of headed stud shear connectors at high temperature", J. Struct. Constr. Eng. AIJ, 73(630), 1417-1433. crossref(new window)

40.
Schwartz, K.J. and Lie, T.T. (1985), "Investigating the unexposed surface temperature criteria of standard ASTM E119", Fire Technol., 21(3), 169-180. crossref(new window)

41.
Shariati, M., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Maleki, S. and Arabnejad Kh, M.M. (2010), "Experimental and analytical study on channel shear connectors in light weight aggregate concrete", Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Steel & Composite Structures, Sydney, Australia, July.

42.
Shariati, M., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Arabnejad Kh, M.M. and Mahoutian, M. (2011a), "Shear resistance of channel shear connectors in plain, reinforced and lightweight concrete", Sci. Res. Essays, 6(4), 977-983.

43.
Shariati, M., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Sinaei, H., Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M. and Shafigh, P. (2011b), "Behavior of channel shear connectors in normal and light weight aggregate concrete (Experimental and Analytical Study)", Adv. Mater. Res., 168, 2303-2307.

44.
Shariati, A. Ramli Sulong, N.H., Suhatril, M. and Shariati, M. (2012a), "Investigation of channel shear connectors for composite concrete and steel T-beam", Int. J. Phys. Sci., 7(11), 1828-1831.

45.
Shariati, A., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Suhatril, M. and Shariati, M. (2012b), "Various types of shear connectors in composite structures: A review", Int. J. Phys. Sci., 7(22), 2876-2890.

46.
Shariati, M., Ramil Sulong, N.H. and Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M. (2012c), "Experimental assessment of channel shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading in high strength concrete", Mater. Des., 34, 325-331. crossref(new window)

47.
Shariati, M., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Suhatril, M., Shariati, A., Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M. and Sinaei, H. (2013), "Comparison of behaviour between channel and angle shear connectors under monotonic and fully reversed cyclic loading", Construct. Build. Mater., 38, 582-593. crossref(new window)

48.
Shariati, M., Shariati, A., Ramli Sulong, N.H., Suhatril, M. and Arabnejad Khanouki, M.M. (2014), "Fatigue energy dissipation and failure analysis of angle shear connectors embedded in high strength concrete", Eng. Fail. Anal., 41, 124-134. crossref(new window)

49.
Structural Fire Engineering (1991), Investigation of Broadgate Phase 8 Fire; The Steel Construction Institute, Ascot, UK.

50.
Uenaka, K., Higashiyama, H. and Ishikawa, T. (2010), "Mechanical behavior of channel shear connector under direct shear", Proceedings of the 5th Civil Engineering Conference in the Asian Region and Australasian Structural Engineering Conference, Syendy, Australia, August.

51.
Viest, I. (1952), "Full-scale tests of channel shear connectors and composite t-beams", Bulletin Series, No. 405.

52.
Viest, I. and Siess, C. (1954), "Design of channel shear connectors for composite I-beam bridges", Public Roads, 28(1), 9-16.

53.
Viest, I., Colaco, J.P., Furlong, R.W., Griffs, L.G., Leon, R.T. and Wyllie, L.A. (1997), Composite Construction Design for Buildings, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA.

54.
Wang, A.J. (2011), "Numerical investigation into headed shear connectors under fire", J. Struct. Eng., 138(1), 118-122.

55.
Zhao, B. and Kruppa, J. (1996), "Experimental and numerical investigation of fire behaviour of steel and concrete composite beams", Proceedings of an Engineering Foundation Conference, Irsee, Germany, June, pp. 129-142.