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Characteristics of the Shells and Calcined Powders from the Butter Clam Saxidomus purpuratus and Littleneck Clam Ruditapes philippinarum as a Natural Calcium Resource
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 Title & Authors
Characteristics of the Shells and Calcined Powders from the Butter Clam Saxidomus purpuratus and Littleneck Clam Ruditapes philippinarum as a Natural Calcium Resource
Kim, Jin-Soo; Jung, Nam Young; Soo Jang, Jeong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Park, Sung Hwan; Kim, Min Joo; Heu, Min Soo;
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Shell waste from the butter clam Saxidomus purpuratus and littleneck clam Ruditapes philippinarum is a large by-product of shellfish aquaculture, and it is desirable to convert it into value-added products for industrial applications. In this study, calcium carbonate (CaC) polymorphs from butter clam (BCSP) and littleneck clam (LCSP) shell powders and commercial CaC were characterized using Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results revealed that the optimal calcination conditions to eliminate organic substances and improve solubility for both BCSP and LCSP were for 8 h in an electrical furnace. Calcination improved the white index of the butter clam (BCCP) and littleneck clam (LCCP) calcined powder compared with shell powders. The calcium content in BCCP (51.1%) was higher than that of LCCP (44.9%) or commercial calcium oxide (CaO, 44.7%). The XRD patterns of BCCP and LCCP were similar to that of CaO. Cubic-like crystals of CaC and irregular crystals of BCCP and LCCP were observed by SEM. The FT-IR and XRD analyses revealed the presence of calcite and aragonite in the BCSP and aragonite in the LCSP, whereas the CaC contained calcite. These results indicate that butter and littleneck clam shells are potential biomass resources for calcium carbonate and calcium oxide.
Saxidomus purpuratus;Ruditapes philippinarum;Shell powder;Calcined powder;XRD;
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