Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Effect of Growth Conditions on the Biomass and Lipid Production of Euglena gracilis Cells Raised in Mixotrophic Culture
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Effect of Growth Conditions on the Biomass and Lipid Production of Euglena gracilis Cells Raised in Mixotrophic Culture
Jeong, U-Cheol; Choi, Jong-Kuk; Kang, Chang-Min; Choi, Byeong-Dae; Kang, Seok-Joong;
  PDF(new window)
Microalgae are functional foods because they contain special anti-aging inhibitors and other functional components, such as ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Many of these functional dietary components are absent in animals and terrestrial plants. Thus, microalgae are widely utilized in human functional foods and in the feed provided to farmed fish and terrestrial livestock. Many marine organisms consume microalgae, often because they are in an appropriate portion of the cell size spectrum, but also because of their nutritional content. The nutritional requirements of marine organisms differ from those of terrestrial animals. After hatching, marine animals need small live forage species that have high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents, including EPA and DHA. Euglena cells have both plant and animal characteristics; they are motile, elliptical in shape, 15-500 μm in diameter, and have a valuable nutritional content. Mixotrophic cell cultivation provided the best growth rates and nutritional content. Diverse carbon (fructose, lactose, glucose, maltose and sucrose) and nitrogen (tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, urea and sodium glutamate) supported the growth of microalgae with high lipid contents. We found that the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of high quality Euglena cells were glucose (10 g L–1) and sodium glutamate (1.0 g L–1), respectively.
Euglena gracilis;Fatty acid;Carbon sources;Nitrogen sources;Mixotrophic;
 Cited by
Ackman RG, Tocher CS and McLachlan J. 1968. Marine phytoplankton fatty acids. J Fish Res Board Can 25, 1603-1620. crossref(new window)

Barsanti LR, Bastianini A, Passarelli V, Tredici MR and Gualtieri P. 2000. Fatty acid content in wild type and WZSL mutant of Euglena gracilis. J Appl Phycol 12, 515-520. crossref(new window)

Bligh EG and Dyer WJ. 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can J Biochem Physiol 37, 911-917. crossref(new window)

Choi JA, Oh TH, Choi JS, Chang DJ and Joo CK. 2013. Impact of beta-1, 3-glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis on corneal epithelial cell migration and on wound healing in a rat alkali burn model. Curr Eye Res 38, 1207-1213. crossref(new window)

Duncan DB. 1955. Multiple range and multiple F test. Biometric 11, 1-42. crossref(new window)

Fan KW, Vrijmoed LLP and Jones EBG. 2002. Physiological studies of subtropical mangrove Thraustochytrids. Botanica Marina 45, 50-57.

Harwood JL. 1988. Fatty acid metabolism. Ann Rev Plant Physiol Plant Mol Biol 39, 101-138. crossref(new window)

Hayashi M, Toda K, Yoneji T, Sato O and Kitaoka S. 1993. Dietary value of rotifers and artemia enriched with Euglena gracilis for red sea bream. Nippon uisan Gakkaishi 59, 1051-1058. crossref(new window)

Hayashi M, Kyoji T, Hiroto I, Reiko K and Shozaburo K. 1994. Effects of shifting pH in the stationary phase of growth on the chemical composition of Euglena gracilis. Biosci Biotech Biochem 58, 1964-1967. crossref(new window)

Honda D, Yokochi T, Nakahara T, Erata M and Higashihara T. 1998. Schizochytrium limacinum sp. nov., a new thraustochytrid from a mangrove area in West Pacific Ocean. Mycol Res 102, 439-448. crossref(new window)

James GW and Browse J. 1999. The Δ8-Desaturase of Euglenagracilis: An alternate pathway for synthsi of 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids. Archiv Biochem Biophy 365, 307-316. crossref(new window)

James CM, Al-Hinty S and Salman AE. 1989. Growth and ω-3 fatty acid and amino acid composition of microalgae under different temperature regimes. Aquaculture 77, 337-351. crossref(new window)

Jiang Y and Chen F. 2000. Effect of temperature and temperature shift on docosahexaenoic acid production by the marine microalgae Crypthecodiniumcohnii. JAOCS 77, 613-617. crossref(new window)

Kim WH, Jeong YS, Park CI and Hur BK. 2005a. The effect of concentration of glucose and salts on both the growth and the production of lipid and DHA of Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC 34304. Kor J Biotech Bioeng 20, 271-277.

Kim WH, Park SH, Song SK, Bae KD and Hur BK. 2005b. The effect of weight ratio of carbon source to nitrogen source on the growth and the composiion of fatty acid of Thraustochytrium aureum ATCC34304.Kor J Biotech Bioeng 20, 266-270.

Mortensen SH, Borsheim KY, Rainuzzo JR and Knutsen G. 1988. Fatty acid and elemental composition of the marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis Schutt. Effect of silicate deprivation, temperature and light intensity. J Exp Mar Bio Ecol 122, 173-185. crossref(new window)

Navarro L, Torres-Marquez ME, González-Moreno S, Devars S, Hernández R and Moreno-Sánchez R. 1997. Comparison of physiological changes in Euglena gracilis during exposure to heavy metals of heterotrophic and autotrophic cells. Comp Biochem Physiol 116, 265-272.

Neidelman SL. 1987. Effect of temperature on lipid unsaturation. Biotech Genetic 5, 245-268. crossref(new window)

Oliveira MAS, Monteiro MP, Robbs PG and Leite SG. 1999. Growth and chemical composition of Spirulena maxima and Spirulena platensis biomass at different temperatures. Aquacult 7, 261-275. crossref(new window)

Perez-Garcia O, Escalante FME, de-Bashan LE and Bashan Y. 2011. Heterotrophic cultures of microalgae: Metabolism and potential products. Water Res 45, 11-36. crossref(new window)

Piorreck M, Baasch KH and Pohl P. 1984. Biomass production, total protein, chlorophylls, lipids and fatty acids of freshwater green and blue-green algae under different nitrogen regimes. Phytoch 23, 207-216. crossref(new window)

Regnault A, Chervin D, Chammal A, Piton F, Calvayrac R, Mazliak P, 1995. Lipid composition of Euglena gracilis in relation to carbon-nitrogen balance. Phytochemistry 40, 725-733. crossref(new window)

Renaud SM, Luong-Van T and Parry DL. 1999. The gross chemical composition and fatty acid composition of 18 species of tropical Australian microalgae for possible use in mariculture. Aquaculture 170, 147-159. crossref(new window)

Rodríguez-Zavala JS, Ortiz-Cruz MA, Mendoza-Hernández G and Moreno-Sánchez R. 2010. Increased synthesis of a-tocopherol, paramylon and tyrosine by Euglena gracilis under conditions of high biomass production. J Appl Microbiol 1096, 2160-2172.

Ruiz LB, Rocchetta I, dos-Santos FV and Conforti VTD. 2004. Isolation, culture and characterization of a new strain of Euglena gracilis. New strain of Euglena gracilis. Phycol Res 52, 168-174. crossref(new window)

Sajbidor J, Dobronova S and Certik M. 1990. Arachidonic acid production by Mortierella sp. S-17: influence of C/N ratio. Biote Lett 12, 455-456. crossref(new window)

Satu N and Murata N. 1980. Temperature shift-induced responses in lipids in the blue-green alga, Anabaena variabilis: The central role of diacylmonoalactosyl glycerol in thermoadaption. Biochim Biophys Acta 619, 353-365. crossref(new window)

Thompson PA, Guo M, Harrison PJ and Whyte JNC. 1992. Effects of variation in temperature: ωⅡ. On the fatty acid composition of eight species of marine phytoplankton. J Phycol 28, 488-497. crossref(new window)

Wang H, Xiong H, Hui Z and Zeng X. 2012. Mixotrophic cultivation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa with diluted primary piggery wastewater to produce lipids. Biores Tech 104, 215-220. crossref(new window)

Watanabe K, Ishikawa C, Ohtsuka I, Kamata M, Tomita M, Yazawa K and Muramatsu H. 1997. Lipid and fatty acid composition of a novel docosahexaenoic acid producing marine bacterium. Lipids 32, 975-978. crossref(new window)

Wen ZY and Chen F. 2003. Heterotrophic production of eicosapentaenoic acid by microalgae. Biotech Advances 21, 273-294. crossref(new window)

Wu ST, Yu ST and Lin LP. 2005. Effect of culture conditions on docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium sp. S31. Process Biochem 40, 3103-3108. crossref(new window)

Yokochi T, Honda D, Higashihara T and Nakahara T. 1998. Optimization of docosahexaenoic acid production by Schizochytrium limacium SR21. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 49, 72-76. crossref(new window)

Zhu L, Zhang X, Ji L, Song X and Kuang C. 2007. Changes of lipid content and fatty acid composition of Schizochytrium limacinum in response to different temperatures and salinities. Process Biochem 42, 210-214. crossref(new window)