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How to Understand Sleep and Sleep Problems in Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome?
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 Title & Authors
How to Understand Sleep and Sleep Problems in Patients with Prader-Willi Syndrome?
Joo, Eun Yeon;
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Sleep problems occur frequently among patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The most common problem is excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) that are closely related to of sleep-related breathing disorder (SRBD) such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and congenital hypoventilation syndrome. Obesity, craniofacial dysmorphism and muscular hypotonia of patients with PWS may increase the risk of SRBD. Sleep apneas can interrupt the continuity of sleep, and these disruptions result in a decrease in both the quality and quantity of sleep. In addition to SRBD, other sleep disorders have been reported, such as hypersomnia, a primary abnormality of the rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and narcolepsy traits at sleep onset REM sleep. Patients with PWS have intrinsic abnormalities of sleep-wake cycles due to hypothalamic dysfunction. The treatment of EDS and other sleep disorders in PWS are similar to standard treatments. Correction of sleep hygiene such as sufficient amount of sleep, maintenance of regular sleep-wake rhythm, and planned naps are important. After comprehensive evaluation of sleep disturbances, CPAP or surgery should be recommended for treatment of SRBD. Remaining EDS or narcolepsy-like syndrome are controlled by stimulant medication. Bright light therapy might be beneficial for disturbed circadian sleep-wake rhythm caused by hypothalamic dysfunction.
Sleep;Excessive daytime sleepiness;Sleep-related breathing disorder;REM sleep abnormalities;Hypothalamic dysfunction;
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