Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Current Status and Perspectives of Livestock Environment Improving Agents for the Characteristics and Control of Swine Manure Odor
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Current Status and Perspectives of Livestock Environment Improving Agents for the Characteristics and Control of Swine Manure Odor
Lee, Eun-Young; Lim, Jung-Soo;
  PDF(new window)
The trend toward intensification of livestock raising, confinement in barn has increased in recent days. The move toward concentrated animal feeding operations reduces per unit costs and permits farmers to better earnings in spite of fluctuation in hog prices. However, this also results in outbreaks of a lot of animal wastes and odorous compounds. Emissions of these malodorous compounds produced from concentrated animal feeding operations have become a concern for both public and regulatory agencies and are causing the complaints of residents in rural area. For competitive sustainable swine production industry, odor management plans systematically identify potential odor sources, determine control strategies to reduce these odors, and establish criteria for implementing these strategies. Since, the malodor originates from microbial activities involving a variety of microbes, understanding the characteristics of the microflora present in swine manure is essential for developing effective odor control techniques. This paper reviews the available information in the literature related to the types of bacteria in swine manure, the potential odorous compounds associated with different bacterial genera, and the corresponding techniques used to control odor based on microbiological principles.
odor;swine manure;Odor control;Livestock environment improving agents;
 Cited by
환경개선제를 급이한 자돈의 돈분에서 발생되는 악취의 발생특성 및 악취 물질의 악취기여도평가,이은영;

한국냄새환경학회지, 2011. vol.10. 3, pp.147-154
자돈 분뇨의 휘발성 지방산 발생 특성 및 환경개선제가 휘발성 지방산 발생에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구,이은영;오민환;

한국폐기물자원순환학회지, 2011. vol.28. 8, pp.814-824
축산생육환경 유해가스 모니터링을 위한 무선가스측정시스템 개발,김영웅;백승현;박홍배;

전자공학회논문지, 2012. vol.49. 9, pp.314-321 crossref(new window)
무선센서 네트워크를 이용한 가축생육환경정보 실시간 모니터링 시스템 구현,김영웅;백승현;전용준;이대기;박홍배;

대한임베디드공학회논문지, 2012. vol.7. 6, pp.301-309 crossref(new window)
액상 돈분에서 병원균과 가스 발생량을 감소시키기 위한 분 첨가제로서 생균제의 축산환경경영평가,최인학;이혁준;김동현;이용복;김삼철;

Journal of Environmental Science International, 2015. vol.24. 1, pp.25-30 crossref(new window)
옥수수를 보리로 대체 급여 시 돈분의 미생물, 가스 발생량 및 휘발성 지방산 함량에 미치는 영향,김회윤;김삼철;이혁준;최인학;송영민;

Journal of Environmental Science International, 2016. vol.25. 8, pp.1207-1212 crossref(new window)
Design of ICT-based Agricultural Safety Monitoring System Models,;;;;

Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea, 2016. vol.35. 4, pp.193-204 crossref(new window)
Aarnink, A. J. A., P. F. M. M. Roelofs, H. Ellen, and H. Gunnink. 1999. Dust sources in animal houses. Proceedings on dust control in animal production facilities, pp. 34- 40. Department of Agricultural Engineering, Danish Institure of Agricultural Sciences, Horsens, Denmark.

Amon, M., M. Dobeic, B. R. Pjillips, R. W. Sneath, T. M, Misselbrook, and B. F. Pain. 1997. A farm scale study on the use of clinoptiolite zeoite and De-Odorase for reduction odour and ammonia emissions from broiler houses. Biores. Technol. 61: 229-237. crossref(new window)

Avery, G. L., G. E. Merva, and J. B. Gerrish. 1975. Hydrogen sulfide production in swine confinement units. Trans. ASAE. 17: 149-151.

Barber, E. M., Dawson, J. R, Battams, V. A, and R. A. C. Nicol. 1991. Spatial variability of airborne and settled dust in a piggery. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 50: 107-127. crossref(new window)

Barth, C. L., L. F, Elliot. and S. W. Melvin. 1984. Using odor control technology to support animal agriculture. Trans. ASAE. 27: 859-864.

Bonmati, A. and X. Flotats. 2003. Air stripping of ammonia from pig slurry: characterisation and feasibility as a preor post-treatment to mesophilic anaerobic digestion, Waste Manag. 23: 261-272. crossref(new window)

Bottcher, R. W. 2001. An environmental nuisance odor concentrated and transported by dust. Chem. Senses 23: 327-331.

Bruce, J. M. 1981. Ventilation and temperature control criteria for pigs. In: Environmental Aspects of Housing for Animal Production. Butterworths, London. p. 197-216.

Bruce, J. M. and M. Sommer. 1987. Environmental aspects of respiratory disease in intensive pig and poultry houses, including the implications for human health. Proceedings EC Meeting Aberdeen, 29-30 October 1986. EC Commission Publications, Brussels.

Buijsman, E. and J. W. Erisman. 1988. Wet deposition of ammonium in Europe. J. Atmos. Chem. 6: 265-280. crossref(new window)

Carpenter, G. A., A. W. Cooper, and G. E. Wheeler. 1986. The effect of air filtration on air hygiene and pig performance in early weaner accommodation. Anim. prod. 43: 505-515. crossref(new window)

Chang, Y. H., J. K. Kim, H. J. Kim, W. Y. Kim, Y. B. Kim, and Y. H. Park. 2000. Probiotic effects of Lactobacillus reuteri BSA-131 on piglets. Kor. J. Appl. Microbiol Biotechnol. 28: 8-13.

Chang, C. W., H. Chung, C. F. Huang, and H. J. J. SU. 2001. Exposure assessment to airborne endotoxin, dust, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide in open style swine house. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 45(6): 457-465.

Chapin, A., C. Boulind, and A. Moore. 1998. "Controling odor and gaseous emission problems from industrial swine facilities: A handbook for all interested parties". Yale Environmental Protection Clinic, pp. 1-56.

Clanton, C. J., D. R. Schmidt, R. E. Nicolai, P. R. Goodrich, L. D. Jacobson, K. A. Janni, S. Weisberg, and J. A. Buckel. 1999. Dynamic olfactometry variability in open style swine houses. Ann. Occup. Hyg. 45: 457-465.

Clark, S., R. Rylander, and L. Larsson. 1983. Airborne bacteria, endotoxin and fungi in dust in poultry and swine confinement buildings. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc J. 44: 537-541. crossref(new window)

Coleman, R. N., J. J. R. Feddes, and B. S. West. 1991. What is odour and the potential for its control? In Proceedings of Western Branch Meeting. Can. Soc. Anim. Prod. Chilliwack(Abstract).

Collington, G. K., Parker, D. S., Ellis, M., and D. G. Armstring. 1998. The influence of probings or tyrosine on growth of pigs and developent the castro-intestinal tract. Anim. Prod. 46 (Abstr.): 521.

Crook, B., J. F. Robertson, G. S. Travers, E. M. Botheroyd, J. Lacey, and M. D. Topping. 1991. Airborne dust, ammonia, microorganisms, and antigens in pig confinement houses and the respiratory health of exposed farm workers. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 52: 271-279. crossref(new window)

Dawson, J. R. 1990. Minimizing dust in livestock buildings: possible alternatives to mechanical separation. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 47: 235-248. crossref(new window)

Dewi, I. A., R. F. E. Axford, I. F. M. Marai, and H. Omed. 1994. Pollution in livestock production systems. CAB International.

Donham, K., L. J. Scallon, and W. Popendorf. 1986. Characterization of dusts collected from swine confinement buildings. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 47: 404-410. crossref(new window)

Donham, K., P. Haglind, Y. Peterson, R. Rylander, and L. Belin. 1989. Environmental and health studies of farm workers in Swedish swine confinement buildings. Br. J. Ind. Med. 46: 31-37.

Dorling, T. A. 1977. Measurement of odour intensity in farming situations. Agric. Environ. 3: 109-120. crossref(new window)

Duchaine C., Y. Grimard, and Y. Cormier. 2000. Influence of building maintenance, environmental factors, and seasons on airborne contaminants of swine confinement buildings. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc. J. 61(1): 56-63.

Emanuel, A. G. 1965. Potassium permanganate offers new solutions to air pollution control. Air Engineering, September.

Faith, W. L. 1964. Odour control in cattle feed yards. J. Air Pollut Control Assoc. 14: 459-460. crossref(new window)

Fakhoury, K. J., A. J. Heber, P. Shao, and J. Q. Ni. 2000. Correlation of odor detection thresholds with concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and trace gases emitted from swine manure. ASAE. Annual International Meeting. No. 00-4047. Milwaukee, Wisconsin, 9-12 July.

Feddes, J. J. R., J. J. Leonard, and J .B. McQuitty. 1983. The influence of selected management practices on heat, moisture and air quality in swine housing, Can. Agric. Eng. 25: 175-179.

Gay, S. W., D. R. Schmidt, C. J. Clanton, K. A. Janni, L. D. Jacobson, and S. Weisberg. 2003. Odor, total reduced sulfur, and ammonia emissions from animal housing facilities and manure storage units in Minnesota. Appl. Eng. Agric. 19(3): 347-360.

Goedseels, V. 1973. De evaluate van de odorantenemissie in relative tot de infrastructuur van intensieve veebedrijven. Het Ingenieursblad. 42: 557-564.

Hao, O.J., J. M. Chen, L. Huang, and R. Buglass. 1996. Sulfate-reducing bacteria, Critical Reviews in Environ. Sci. & Technol. 26(1): 155-187.

Hammond, E. G., C. Fedler, and R. J. Smith. 1981. analysis of particle-borne swine house odours. Agric. Environ. 6: 395-401. crossref(new window)

Harssema, H., W. J. van Eerden, and J. V. Klarenbeek. 1981. The relation between intensity of husbandry farming and damage of vegetation. IMAG Report 32, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Hartung, J. 1986. Dust in livestock buildings as acarrier of odours. In: Nielsen, V. C., J. H. Voorburg, and P. L'Hermite. (eds), Odour Prevention and control of organic sludge and livestock farmings. Elsevier, London, pp. 321-332.

Hartung, J. and V. R. Phillips. 1994. Control of gaseous emissions from livestock buildings and manure stores. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 57: 173-189. crossref(new window)

Headon, D. R. and G. Walsh. 1993. Yucca schidigera extracts and ammonia control. p. 686-693. In E. Collins and C. Boon (ed.) Livestock Environment IV, 4th Int. Symp. Univ. of Warwick, Coventry, UK. 6-9 July. St. Joseph, MI. ASAE.

Headon, D. R. and G. Walsh. 1994. Biological control of pollutants principle of pig science. In biotechnology in the feed industry. Cole, D. J. A., Wiseman, J. and Varley, M.A. (Eds.). Nottingham Univ. Press, Nottingham, U.K.

Heber, Al. (undated). Controling ammonia gas in swine buildings. Agrictural and Biological Engineering, Animal Science and Industry, Purdue University.

Heber, A. J., M. Stroik, J. L. Nelssen, and D. A. Nichols. 1988. Influence of environmental factors on concentrations and inorganic content of aerial dust in swine finishing buildings. Trans. ASAE. 31(3): 875-881.

Heyman, M. and S. Menard. 2002. Probiotic microorganism: how they affect intestinal pathophysiology. Cell Mol. Life. Sci. 59: 1151-1165. crossref(new window)

Henschler, D. 1990. Maximale Arbeitsplatzkonzentrationen und biologische Arbeitsstoffoleranzwerte. Mitteilung der Senatskommission zur Prufung Gesundheitsschadlicher Arbeitsstoffe; 26. VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, Weinheim, Germany.

Hill, I. R., R. Kenworthy, and P. Proter. 1970. Studies of the effect of dietary Lactobacilli on intestinal and urinary amines in pigs in relation to weaning and post-weaning diarrhea. Res. Bet. Sci. 11: 320-326.

Hilliger, Von H. G., C. Aengst, and E. Jellen. 1984. Gravimetric measurements of dust in pig and poultry houses. Transactions of the ASAE, 27: 865-870.

Hinz, T. and K. H. Krause. 1988. Emission of respiratory biological-mixed-aerosols from animal houses, In: Environmental aspects of respiratory disease in intensive pig and poultry houses, including the implications for human health, pp. 81-89. Proceedings: EEC-Meeting Aberdeen.

Hollenback, R. C. 1971. Manure odor abatement using hydrogen peroxide. Rep. no. 5638-R. Food machinery Corp., Princeton, NJ.

Hong, J. W., I. H. Kim, O. S. Kwon, J. H. Kim, B. J. Min, and W. B. Lee. 2002. Effects of dietary probiotics supplementation on growth performance and fecal gas emission in nursing and finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci. Technol (Kor.). 44: 305-314. crossref(new window)

Ishaque, M., J.G. Bisaillon, R. Beaudet, and M. Sylvestre, 1985. Degradation of phenolic compounds by microorganisms indigenous to swine waste. Agric. Wastes. 13: 229-235. crossref(new window)

Iversen, M., R. Dahl, J. Korsgaard, T. Hallas, and J. E. Juel. 1988. Respiratory symptoms in Danish farmers: an epidemiological study of risk factors. Thorax. 43: 872-877. crossref(new window)

Jacobson, L. 1998. The effect on odor emissions when sprinkling oil for dust control inside pig buildings. University of Minnesota. Final report. Sept. 1.

Jang, Y. K., K. P. Song, H. J. Kim, and Y. H. Yoo. 2004. AN Investigation on the Odor Characterisitics of Livestock Facilities. EIA. 13(1): 33-40.

Jacobson, L., L. Johnston, B. Hetchler, and K. Janni. 2000. Odor emissions control by sprinkling oil for dust reduction in pig buildings. Trans. ASAE. pp. 413-420.

Janni, K. A., P. T. Redig, J. Newman, and J. Mulhausen. 1984. Respirable aerosol concentrations in turkey grower buildings. ASAE paper No. 84-4522.

Jung, K. H., J. C. Han, S. J. Kwack, J. D. Jung, J. W. Lee, and D. H. Kim. 2008. Effects of Enzyme Complex on Odor Emission from Swine Slurry and Swine Buildings. J. Lives. Hous. & Env. 14(1): 15-22.

Kang, K. H., S. K. Kim, C. G. Hu, and M. G. Lee. 2006. The Effect of Reduction of Contaminants and Odor according to the Additives in the Anaerobic Maturation Process of Piggery Slurry. J. Environ. Sci. 15(2): 169-175. crossref(new window)

Kibble, W. H., C. W. Raleigh, and J. A. Sheperd. 1972. Hydrogen peroxide for industrial pollution control. In Proc. of the 27th Purdue Ind. Waste Conf., Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Purdue Univ. Publ., Lafayette, IN.

Kim, J. H., C. H. Kim, and Y. D. Ko. 2001. Effect of dietary supplementation of hermented feed(Bio-) on performance of finishing pigs and fecal ammonia gas emission. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. Technol. 43: 193-202.

Kim, K, Y. and C. N. Kim. 2003. Fluctuation of indoor air pollutants emitted from enclosed pig building in winter. J. Kor. Soc. Occup. Environ. Hyg. 13(3): 191-197 .

Kim, K. Y., H. L. Choi, H. J. Ko, Y. G. Lee, and C. N. Kim. 2006a. Evaluation of Odor Reduction in the Enclosed Pig Building Through Spraying Biological Additives. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 48(3): 467-478. crossref(new window)

Kim, K. Y., H. L. Choi, H. J. Ko, Y. G. Lee, and C. N. Kim. 2006b. Effect of Spraying Additives on Reducing Odor in Pig Building. J. Anim. Sci. & Technol. (Kor.) 48(3): 467-478. crossref(new window)

Ko, H. J., K. Y. Kim, Y. K. Lee, and C. N. Kim. 2003. Evaluation of odor emitted from a swine slurry applied into arable land. Kor. J. Odor. Res. Eng. Autumn, p. 52-53.

Koerkamp, P. W. G., J. H. M. Metz, G. H. Uenk, V. R. Phillips, M. R. Holden, R. W. Sneath, J. L. Short, R. P. White, J. Hartung, J. L. Seedorf, M. Schroder, K. H. Linkert, S. Pederson, H. Takai, J. O. Johnsen, and C. M. Wathes. 1998. Concentrations and emissions of ammonia in livestock buildings in Northern Europe. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 70: 79-95. crossref(new window)

Korthals, R. L., L. L. Christianson, and A. J. Muehling. 1988. Assessing and improving environmental conditions in commercial swine facilities. Proceedings of International Livestock Environment Symposium, Ontario, Canada, 25- 27 April. ASAE.

Liao, P. H., A. Chen, and K. V. Lo. 1995. Removal of nitrogen from swine manure wastewater by amonia stripping. Biores. Technol. 54: 17-20. crossref(new window)

Lim, T. T., A. J. Heber, J. Q. Ni, A. L. Sutton, and D. T. Kelly. 2001. Characteristics and emission rates of odor from commercial swine nurseries. Trans. ASAE. 44: 1275-1282.

Mackie, R. I. 1994. Microbial production of odor components. In: Proc. of international round table on swine odor control. 13-15 June at Ames, IA, USA, pp. 18-19.

Mackie, R. T., P. G. Stroot, and V. H. Barel. 1998. Biochemical identification and biological origin of key odor components in livestock waste. J. Anim. Sci. 76: 1331-1342.

Maiolino, R., A. Fioretti, L. F. Menna, and C. Meo. 1992. Research on the efficiency of probiotics in diets for broiler chickens. Nutrition Abstracts and Reviews Series, B62: 482.

McCrory, D. F. and P. J. Hobbs. 2001. Additives to reduce ammonia and odor emissions from livestock wastes: a review. J. Environ. Qual. 30:345-355. crossref(new window)

Ministry of Environment, Korea (2005). Offensive Odor Control Law.

Miller, D. N. and V. H. Varel. 2003. Swine manure composition affects the biochemical origins, compositon and accumulation of odorous compound. J. Anim. Sci. 81: 2131-2138.

Muehling, A. J. 1970. Gases and odors from stored swine wastes. J. Anim. Sci. 30: 526-531.

Muralidhara, K. S., G. G. Sheggeby, P. R. Eliker, D. C. England, and W. E. San dine. 1977. Effects of feeding lactobacilli on the coliform and Lactobacillus flora on intestinal tissue and feces from piglets. J. Food Prod. 40: 288-291.

MWPS. 1985. Swine Waste Facilities Handbook. MWPS- 18. Midwest Plan Service. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

MWPS. 1991. Swine Housing and Equipment Handbook. MWPS-8. Midwest Plan Service. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

NCSU (National Institure for Occupational Safety and Health). 1994. NIOSH Manual of Analytical Method(4th Ed.). Cincinnati, Ohio.

Nicolai, R. and J. Kevin. 1997. Biofilter for swine production facilities. University of minnesota Extension Service, February.

Nilson, C. 1984. Dust investigations in pig houses. Paper presented at Symposium 'Dust in animal houses' held by International Society of Animal Hygiene, Hannover, March.

Noblet, J., J. Y. Dourmad, J. Le Dividich, and S. Dubois. 1989. Effect of ambient temperature and addition of straw of alfalfa in the diet on energy metabolism in pregnant sow. Livest. Prod. Sci. 21: 309. crossref(new window)

Noh, S. H., H. K. Moon, I. K. Han, and I. S. Shin. 1995. Nonruminant Nutrition; Effect of Dietary Growth Promoting Substances on the Growth Performance in Pigs. Kor. J. Anim. Sci. 37: 66-72.

Noh, Y. M., K. W. Kim, C. N. Kim, H. S. Kim, and Y. Y. Lim. 2003. Analysis of Odorous Compounds emitted from Land Fill Gas using Gas Chromatography - Pulsed Flame Photometric Detector. Kor. J. Odor Res. and Eng. Spring, p. 118-120.

Nordstrom, G. A. and J. B. McQuitty. 1976. Manure Gases in the Animal Environment. Department of Agricultural and Engineering, University of Alberta.

O'Neill, D. H. and V. R. Phillips. 1992. A review of the control of odour nuisance from livestock building: Part 3, Properties of the odorous substances which have been identified in livestock wastes or in the air around them, J. Agric. Eng. Res. 53: 23-50. crossref(new window)

Olson, D. K. and S. M. Bark. 1996. Health hazards affecting the animal confinement farm worker. AAOHN. J. 44: 198-204.

Pedersen, S. 1993. Time-based variation in airborne dust in respect to animal activity. Proceedings on Livestock Environment St. Joseph, MI. ASAE. p. 718-726.

Ra, J. C., H. J. Han, and J. E. Song. 2004. Effect of probiotics on production and improvement of environment in pigs and broiler. Kor. J. Vet. Publ. Health. 28: 157-167.

Ritter, W. F., N. E. Collins, and R. P. Eastburn. 1975. Chemical treatment of liquid dairy manure to reduce malodours. p. 381-384. In: Managing Livestock Manure, Proceedings of 3rd International Symposium on Livestock Manure. Publ. PROC-275. St. Joseqh, MI. ASAE.

Reynolds, S. J., K. J. Donham, P. Whitten, J. A. Merchant, L. F. Burmeister, and W. J. Popendorf. 1996. Longitudinal evaluation of dose-response relationships for environmental exposures and pulmonary function in swine production workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 29: 33-40. crossref(new window)

Ritter, W. F. 1989. Odour control of livestock manure: State-of-the-art in North America. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 42: 51-62. crossref(new window)

Russell, E. G. 1979, Types and distribution of anaerobic bacteria in the large intestine of pigs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 37(2): 187-193.

Ryu, H. W., K. S. Cho, T. H. Lee, and M. Huh. 2003. Management of offensive Odors in Swine Production Facilities: II. Odor Management Plans. Kor. J. Odor Res. Eng. 2(2): 78-85.

Seedorf, J., J. Hartung, M. Schroder, K. H. Linkert, and V. R. Phillips, M. R. Holden, R.W. Sneath, J. L. Short, R. P. White, S. Pedersen, H. Takai, J. O. Johnsen, J. H. M. Metz, P. W. G. Groot Koerkamp, G. H. Uenk, C. M. Wathes. 1998. Concentrations and emissions of airborne endotoxins and microorganisms in livestock buildings in Northern Europe. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 70: 97-109 crossref(new window)

Schaefer, J., J. M. H. Bemelmans, and M. C. ten Noever de Brauw. 1974. Onderzoek naar de voor de stank van varkensmesteriijeen verantwoordelijke componenten (Research into the components responsible for the smell of piggeries) Landbouwkundig Tijdschrift. 86(9): 228-232.

Shahani, K. M., J. R. Vakil, and A. Kilara. 1976. Natural antibiotic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus and bulgaricus. I: Cultural conditions for the production of antibiosis. Cult. Dairy Prod. J. 11: 14-17.

Shurson, J., M. Whitney, and R. Nicolai. 1997. Nutritional manipulation of swine diets to reduce hydrogen sulfide emissions. Extension service, Univ. of Minnesota.

Smith, H. W. and J. E. T. Jones. 1963. Observation on the alimentary tract and its bacterial flora in healthy and diseased pigs. J. Path. Bact. 86: 837.

Smith, K. A., A. Drysdale, and D. Saville. 1980. An investigation into the effectiveness of some odour control treatments in stored pig manure. Protect Report 24. New Zealand Agricultural Engineering Institution, Lincon College, Canterbury. New Zealand.

Smith, R. J. and P. J. Watts. 1994. Determination of odour emission rates from cattle feedlots: Part 1. a review. J. Agric. Eng. Res. 57: 145-155. crossref(new window)

Sohn, B. K., S. G. Kang, E. J. Cho, S. D. Kim, C. J. Lee, and J. H. Kim. 2006. Estimation of ammonia stripping condition for adequate aerobic liquid-composting of swine manure. Kor. J. Soil. Sci. Fert. 39(2): 73-79.