JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The effect of materials properties on the reliability of hydraulic turbine runners
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The effect of materials properties on the reliability of hydraulic turbine runners
Thibault, Denis; Gagnon, Martin; Godin, Stephane;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The failure of hydraulic turbine runners is a rare event. So in order to assess the reliability of these components one cannot rely solely on the number of observed failures in a given population. However, as there is a limited number of degradation mechanisms involved, it is possible to use physically-based reliability models. Such models are often more complicated but are able to account for physical parameters in the degradation process. They can therefore help provide solutions to improve reliability. With such models, the effect of materials properties on runner reliability can be highlighted. This paper presents a brief review of the Kitagawa-Takahashi diagram which links the damage tolerance approach, based on fracture mechanics, to the stress or strain-life approaches. Using simplified response spectra based on runner stress measurements, we will show how fatigue reliability is sensitive to materials fatigue properties, namely fatigue crack propagation behaviour and fatigue limit obtained on S-N curves. Furthermore, we will review the influence of the main microstructural features observed in 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steels commonly used for runner manufacturing. The goal is ultimately to identify the most influential microstructural features and to quantify their effect on fatigue reliability of runners.
 Keywords
fatigue;reliability;stainless steel;hydraulic turbine;turbine runner;microstructure;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Gagnon M, Tahan A, Bocher P, Thibault D, 2013, A probabilistic model for the onset of High Cycle Fatigue (HCF) crack propagation: Application to hydroelectric turbine runner, Int. J. Fatigue, 47, 300-7 crossref(new window)

2.
Kitagawa H and Takahashi S, 1976, Applicability of fracture mechanics to very small cracks or the cracks in the early stage, Second International Conference on Mechanical Behavior of Materials. , ASM, Metals Park, Ohio, 627-31

3.
Gagnon M, Tahan A, Bocher P and Thibault D, 2013, On the Fatigue Reliability of Hydroelectric Francis Runners, Procedia Engineering, 66, 565-74 crossref(new window)

4.
Gagnon M, Tahan S, Bocher P and Thibault D, 2012, The role of high cycle fatigue (HCF) onset in Francis runner reliability, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 15, 022005

5.
Gagnon M, Tahan A, Bocher P and Thibault D, 2014, Influence of load spectrum assumptions on the expected reliability of hydroelectric turbines: A case study, Structural Safety, 50, 1-8 crossref(new window)

6.
Atzori B and Lazzarin P, 2002, A three-dimensional graphical aid to analyze fatigue crack nucleation and propagation phases under fatigue limit conditions, Int. J. Fracture, 118, 271-84 crossref(new window)

7.
Thieulot-Laure E, Pommier S and Frechinet S, 2007, A multiaxial fatigue failure criterion considering the effects of the defects, Int. J. Fatigue, 29, 1996-2004 crossref(new window)

8.
Sadananda K and Sarkar S, 2013, Modified Kitagawa Diagram and Transition from Crack Nucleation to Crack Propagation, Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A, 44, 1175-89 crossref(new window)

9.
Sadananda K, Sarkar S, Kujawski D and Vasudevan A, 2009, A two-parameter analysis of fatigue life using ${\Delta}{\sigma}$ and ${\sigma}$max, Int. J. Fatigue, 31, 1648-59 crossref(new window)

10.
Standards B, 2005, BS7910: 2005 Guide to methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structure,

11.
Lanteigne J, Sabourin M, Bui-Quoc T and Julien D, 2008, The characteristics of the steels used in hydraulic turbine runners, IAHR 24th Symposium on Hydraulic Machinery and Systems,

12.
Sabourin M, Thibault D, Bouffard D and Levesque M, 2010, New parameters influencing hydraulic runner lifetime, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 12, 012050

13.
Sabourin M, Thibault D, Bouffard D-A and Levesque M, 2010, Hydraulic Runner Design Method for Lifetime, International Journal of Fluid Machinery and Systems, 3, 301-8 crossref(new window)

14.
Thibault D, Bocher P, Thomas M, Lanteigne J, Hovington P and Robichaud P, 2011, Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13% Cr-4% Ni stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528, 6519-26

15.
Gysel W, Gerber E and Trautwein A, 1982, CA6NM: New developments based on 20 years' experience, ASTM STP 756, 403-35

16.
Nalbone C, 1982, Effects of carbon content and tempering treatment on the mechanical properties and sulfide stress corrosion cracking resistence of AOD-Refined CA6NM, ASTM, 756, 315-31

17.
Folkhard E, 1988, Welding metallurgy of stainless steels, Berlin, (Springer-Verlag),

18.
Bilmes P D, Solari M and Llorente C L, 2001, Characteristics and effects of austenite resulting from tempering of 13Cr-NiMo martensitic steel weld metals, Material Characterization, 46, 285-96 crossref(new window)

19.
Crawford J, 1975, CA6NM -An update, Steel foundry facts -Steel Founders Society of America, 313,

20.
Gooch T G, Woolin P and Haynes A G, 1999, Welding metallurgy of low carbon 13%Cr martensitic steels, Supermartensitic Stainless Steel, Bruxelles, KCI Publishing BV, 25-32

21.
Kimura M, Miyata Y, Toyooka T and Kitahaba Y, 2001, Effect of retained austenite on corrosion performance for modified 13%Cr steel pipe, Corrosion, 57, 433-9 crossref(new window)

22.
Marder A and Krauss G, 1967, The morphology of martensite in iron-carbon alloys, ASM Trans Quart, 60, 651-60

23.
Morito S, Tanaka H, Konishi R, Furuhara T and Maki T, 2003, The morphology and crystallography of lath martensite in Fe-C alloys, Acta Mater., 51, 1789-99 crossref(new window)

24.
Krauss G, 1999, Martensite in steel: strength and structure, Materials Science and Engineering A, 273-275, 40-57 crossref(new window)

25.
Morito S, Yoshida H, Maki T and Huang X, 2006, Effect of block size on the strength of lath martensite in low carbon steels, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 438, 237-40

26.
Wang C, Wang M, Shi J, Hui W and Dong H, 2008, Effect of microstructural refinement on the toughness of low carbon martensitic steel, Scripta Materialia, 58, 492-5 crossref(new window)

27.
Morris Jr J, 2001, The influence of grain size on the mechanical properties of steel,

28.
Nakai Y, Tanaka K and Nakanishi T, 1981, The effects of stress ratio and grain size on near-threshold fatigue crack propagation in low-carbon steel, Eng. Fract. Mech., 15, 291-302 crossref(new window)

29.
Masounave J and Bailon J-P, 1976, Effect of grain size on the threshold stress intensity factor in fatigue of a ferritic steel, Scripta Metall., 10, 165-70 crossref(new window)

30.
Yoder G, Cooley L and Crooker T, 1983, A Critical Analysis of Grain-Size and Yield-Strength Dependence of Near-Threshold Fatigue Crack Growth in Steels, Fracture Mechanics: Fourteenth Symposium, 1, 348-65

31.
Priddle E, 1978, The influence of grain size on threshold stress intensity for fatigue crack growth in AISI 316 stainless steel, Scripta Metall., 12, 49-56 crossref(new window)

32.
Bathias C and Baïlon J P, 1997, La fatigue des materiaux et des structures, Paris, (Hermes), 2,

33.
Ravichandran K, Panchapagesan T and Dwarakadasa E, 1987, The effect of crack closure on the grain size dependence of fatigue crack growth threshold, Scripta Metall., 21, 919-24 crossref(new window)

34.
Carlson M and Ritchie R, 1977, On the effect of prior austenite grain size on near-threshold fatigue crack growth, Scripta Metall., 11, 1113-8 crossref(new window)

35.
Murakami R and Akizono K, 1981, The influence of prior austenite grain size and stress ratio on near threshold fatigue crack growth behavior in high strength steel, ICF5, Cannes (France) 1981,

36.
Tokaji K and Ogawa T, 1992, The growth behaviour of microstructurally small fatigue cracks in metals, Short fatigue cracks, ESIS, 13, 85-99

37.
Trudel A, Levesque M and Brochu M, 2014, Microstructural effects on the fatigue crack growth resistance of a stainless steel CA6NM weld, Eng. Fract. Mech., 115, 60-72 crossref(new window)

38.
Thibault D, Bocher P, Thomas M, Lanteigne J, Hovington P, Robichaud P, 2011, Reformed austenite transformation during fatigue crack propagation of 13%Cr-4%Ni stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528, 6519-26

39.
Song Y, Li X, Rong L, Ping D, Yin F and Li Y, 2010, Formation of the reversed austenite during intercritical tempering in a Fe-13% Cr-4% Ni-Mo martensitic stainless steel, Materials Letters, 64, 1411-4 crossref(new window)

40.
Bilmes P D, Llorente C L and Perez-Ipina J, 2000, Toughness and microstructure of 13Cr4NiMo high-strength steel welds, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 9, 609-15 crossref(new window)

41.
Song Y, Ping D, Yin F, Li X and Li Y, 2010, Microstructural evolution and low temperature impact toughness of a Fe-13% Cr-4% Ni-Mo martensitic stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527, 614-8

42.
Godin S, 2014, Effet d'un enrichissement en nickel sur la stabilite mecanique de l'austenite de reversion lorsque soumise a de la fatigue oligocyclique, Ecole de technologie superieure, Universite du Quebec, Master's thesis

43.
Robichaud P, 2007, Caracterisation de la stabilite de l'austenite residuelle du 415 soumis a un cyclage en fatigue oligocylique, Ecole de technologie superieure, Universite du Quebec, Master's thesis

44.
Chaix J, 2014, Influence de la temperature de revenu sur la resistance du CA6NM a la propagation des fissures de fatigue, Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, M.Sc.

45.
Wang P, Lu S, Xiao N, Li D and Li Y, 2010, Effect of delta ferrite on impact properties of low carbon 13Cr-4Ni martensitic stainless steel, Materials Science and Engineering: A, 527, 3210-6

46.
Carrouge D, Bhadeshia K D H and Woollin P, 2004, Effect of ${\delta}$-ferrite on impact properties of supermartensitic stainless steel heat affected zones, Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, 9, 377-89 crossref(new window)

47.
Wilson A, 1981, Fractographic characterization of the effect of inclusions on fatigue crack propagation, Fractography and Materials Science, ASTM STP, 733, 166-86

48.
Fowler G J, 1979, The influence of non-metallic inclusions on the threshold behavior in fatigue, Materials Science and Engineering, 39, 121-6 crossref(new window)

49.
Atkinson H and Shi G, 2003, Characterization of inclusions in clean steels: a review including the statistics of extremes methods, Progress in Materials Science, 48, 457-520 crossref(new window)

50.
Murakami Y, 2002, Metal fatigue: effects of small defects and nonmetallic inclusions: effects of small defects and nonmetallic inclusions, (Elsevier),

51.
Murakami Y, Toriyama T, Tsubota K, Furumura K and Tanaka K, 1998, What Happens to the Fatigue Limit of Bearing Steel Without Nonmetallic Inclusions?: Fatigue Strength of Electron Beam Remelted Super Clean Bearing Steel, ASTM SPECIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION, 1327, 87-108

52.
2007, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 2,

53.
Aven T, Zio E, Baraldi P and Flage R, 2013, Uncertainty in risk assessment : The representation and treatment of uncertainties by probablilistic and non-probabilistic methods, (John Wiley & Sons),

54.
Tanaka K, Yamaguchi N, Fujiki S, Furoya S, Tsunoda S and Yamagata I, 1992, Studies on dynamic stress of runners for the design of 760 metre head pump-turbine, Sao Paulo,

55.
Usami S and Shida S, 1982, Effects of environment, stress ratio and defect size on fatigue threshold, Journal of Japan Society of Materials, 31,

56.
Mahnig F, Rist A and Walter H, 1974, Strength and mechanical fracture behaviour of cast steel for turbines -Part One, Water Power 1074, 338-42