JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
False Belief Understanding and Justification Reasoning according to Information of Reality amongst Children Aged 3, 4 and 5
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Journal of Child Studies
  • Volume 36, Issue 5,  2015, pp.135-153
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Child Studies
  • DOI : 10.5723/KJCS.2015.36.5.135
 Title & Authors
False Belief Understanding and Justification Reasoning according to Information of Reality amongst Children Aged 3, 4 and 5
Kim, Yumi; Yi, Soon Hyung;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate false belief understanding and justification reasoning according to information of reality amongst children aged 3, 4 and 5. Children aged 3 to 5 years (N = 176) participated in this study. Each child was interviewed individually and responded to questions designed to measure his/her false belief understanding. Every child responded to the false belief task under two different information conditions of reality(reality known vs reality unknown). For more specific analysis, children's reasoning responses were also recorded. The major findings of this study are as follows. Children could understand false belief more easily under reality unknown conditions. Specifically, the influences of information conditions were crucial to 3-year-olds but not to 4- and 5-year-olds. Although 3 year olds were able to avoid the systematical errors inherent in the false belief task, they still did not understand the false belief itself. This study provides specific aspects of false belief understanding and its relevance to general changes in cognitive development.
 Keywords
theory of mind;false belief understanding;information conditions of reality;justification reasoning;
 Language
Korean
 Cited by
 References
1.
Astington, J. W., & Gopnik, A. (1991). Theoretical explanations of children's understanding of the mind. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(1), 7-31. crossref(new window)

2.
Baron-Cohen, S., Leslie, A. M, & Frith, U. (1985). Does the autistic child have a "theory of mind"? Cognition, 21(1), 37-46. crossref(new window)

3.
Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. (1989). Young Children's Attribution of Action to Beliefs and Desires. Child Development, 60(4), 946-964. crossref(new window)

4.
Bartsch, K., & Wellman, H. (1995). Children talk about the mind. Oxford University Press.

5.
Bernstein, D. M., Atance, C., Loftus, G. R., & Meltzoff, A. (2004). We saw it all along visual hindsight bias in children and adults. Psychological Science, 15(4), 264-267. crossref(new window)

6.
Bernstein, D. M., Atance, C., Meltzoff, A. N., & Loftus, G. R. (2007). Hindsight bias and developing theories of mind. Child Development, 78(4), 1374-1394. crossref(new window)

7.
Bernstein, D. M., Erdfelder, E., Meltzoff, A. N., Peria, W., & Loftus, G. R. (2011). Hindsight bias from 3 to 95 years of age. Journal of Experimental Psychology-Learning Memory and Cognition, 37(2), 378. crossref(new window)

8.
Bhandari, K., & Barth, H. (2010). Show or Tell: Testimony is Sufficient to Induce the Curse of Knowledge in Three-and Four-year-olds. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63(2), 209-215. crossref(new window)

9.
Birch, S. A., & Bloom, P. (2003). Children Are Cursed An Asymmetric Bias in Mental-State Attribution. Psychological Science, 14(3), 283-286. crossref(new window)

10.
Birch, S. A., & Bloom, P. (2007). The curse of knowledge in reasoning about false beliefs. Psychological Science, 18(5), 382-386. crossref(new window)

11.
Bloom, P., & German, T. P. (2000). Two reasons to abandon the false belief task as a test of theory of mind. Cognition, 77(1), 25-31. crossref(new window)

12.
Call. J. & Tomasello, M., (1999). A Nonverbal false belief task: the performance of children and great apes. Child development, 70(2), 381-395. crossref(new window)

13.
Carlson, S. M., & Moses, L. J. (2001). Individual differences in inhibitory control and children's theory of mind. Child development, 72(4), 1032-1053. crossref(new window)

14.
Carlson, S. M., Moses, L. J., & Hix, H. R. (1998). The role of inhibitory processes in young children's difficulties with deception and false belief. Child development, 69(3), 672-691. crossref(new window)

15.
Chung, J. N & Choi, K. S(2011). The Effect of Task Simplification on The Development of Second-Order False Belief Understanding. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 24(4), 19-39.

16.
Dennett, D. C. (1978). Beliefs about beliefs. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(04), 568-570.

17.
Fizke, E., Barthel, D., Perters, T., & Rakoczy, H. (2014). Executive function plays a role in coordinating different perspectives, particularly when one's own perspective is involved. Cognition, 130, 315-334. crossref(new window)

18.
Flavell, J. H. (1982). On cognitive development. Child Development, 53(1). 1-10. crossref(new window)

19.
Flavell, J. H, Flavell, E. R., & Green, F. L. (1983). Development of the appearance-reality distinction. Cognitive psychology, 15(1), 95-120. crossref(new window)

20.
Freeman, N. H., & Lacohee, H. (1995). Making explicit 3-year-olds' implicit competence with their own false beliefs. Cognition, 56(1), 31-60. crossref(new window)

21.
Ghim, H. R(1997). Development of children's theory of mind: Children's understanding of false belief. The Korean Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10(1), 75-91.

22.
Gopnik, A., & Astington, J. W. (1988). Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction. Child development, 59(1), 26-37. crossref(new window)

23.
Harris, P. L. (1992). From simulation to folk psychology: The case for development. Mind & Language, 7(12), 120-144. crossref(new window)

24.
He, Z., Bolz, M., & Baillargeon, R. (2012). 2.5-year-olds succeed at a verbal anticipatorylooking false-belief task. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 30(1), 14-29. crossref(new window)

25.
Hughes, C., & Russell, J. (1993). Autistic children's difficulty with mental disengagement from an object: Its implications for theories of autism. Developmental psychology, 29(3), 498. crossref(new window)

26.
Kim, J. K & Yi, S. H(2008). The false belief and conflicting desire task performing ability according age and executive function. Korean Journal of Early Childhood Education, 28(5), 93-113. crossref(new window)

27.
Kim, Y. M & Yi, S. H(2014). The Moral Judgment and Justification Reasoning in terms of Aggressive Behavior by 3, 4 and 5 Year Olds: The Relationship to Children's False Belief Understanding. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 35(3), 49-70. crossref(new window)

28.
Koos, O., Gergely, G., Csibra, G., & Biro, S. (1997). Why eating Smarties makes you smart: Understanding of false belief at the age of 3. In Poster presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Washington, DC.

29.
Leslie, A. M., Friedman, O., & German, T. P. (2004). Core mechanisms in 'theory of mind'. Trends in cognitive sciences, 8(12), 528-533. crossref(new window)

30.
Leslie, A. M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Inhibitory processing in the false belief task: Two conjectures. Developmental Science, 1(2), 247-253. crossref(new window)

31.
Lewis, C., Freeman, N. H., Hagestadt, C., & Douglas, H. (1994). Narrative access and production in preschoolers' false belief reasoning. Cognitive Development, 9(4), 397-424. crossref(new window)

32.
Lewis, C., & Osborne, A. (1990). Three-Year-Olds' Problems with False Belief: Conceptual Deficit or Linguistic Artifact? Child Development, 61(5), 1514-1519. crossref(new window)

33.
Maehara, Y., & Umeda, S. (2013). Reasoning bias for the recall of one's own beliefs in a Smarties task for adults. Japanese Psychological Research. 55(3), 292-301. crossref(new window)

34.
Moore, C., Jarrold, C., Russell, J., Lumb, A., Sapp, F., & MacCalIum, F. (1995). Conflicting desire and the child's theory of mind. Cognitive Development, 10(4), 467-482. crossref(new window)

35.
Moses, L. J., Carlson, S. M., & Sabbagh, M. A. (2005). On the specificity of the relation between executive function and children's theories of mind. In Schneider, W., Schumann-Hengsteler, R., & Sodian, B. (Eds.), Young children's cognitive development: Inter-relationships among executive functioning, working memory, verbal ability, and theory of mind (pp. 131-145). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

36.
Moses, L. J., & Flavell, J. H. (1990). Inferring false beliefs from actions and reactions. Child development, 61(4), 929-945. crossref(new window)

37.
Perner, J. (1991). Understanding the representational mind. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.

38.
Perner, J. (1995). The many faces of belief: Reflections on Fodor's and the child's theory of mind. Cognition, 57(3), 241-269. crossref(new window)

39.
Perner, J., & Lang, B. (1999). Theory of mind and executive function: Is there a developmental relationship. Understanding other minds: Perspectives from developmental cognitive. neuroscience, 2, 150-181.

40.
Perner, J., Lang, B., & Kloo, D. (2002). Theory of mind and self-control: more than a common problem of inhibition. Child Development, 73(3), 752-767. crossref(new window)

41.
Perner, J., Leekam, S. R., & Wimmer, H. (1987). Three-year-olds' difficulty with false belief: The case for a conceptual deficit. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 5(2), 125-137. crossref(new window)

42.
Perner, J., & Wimmer, H. (1985). "John< i>thinks that Mary< i> thinks that..." attribution of second-order beliefs by 5-to 10-year-old children. Journal of experimental child psychology, 39(3), 437-471. crossref(new window)

43.
Robinson, E. J., & Mitchell, P. (1995). Masking of children's early understanding of the representational mind: Backwards explanation versus prediction. Child Development, 66(4), 1022-1039. crossref(new window)

44.
Russell, J. (1996). Agency: Its role in mental development. Psychology Press.

45.
Sabbagh, M. A., Moses, L. J., & Shiverick, S. (2006). Executive functioning and preschoolers' understanding of false beliefs, false photographs, and false signs. Child Development, 77(4), 1034-1049. crossref(new window)

46.
Taylor, M., Esbensen, B. M., & Bennett, R. T. (1994). Children's understanding of knowledge acquisition: The tendency for children to report that they have always known what they have just learned. Child development, 65(6), 1581-1604. crossref(new window)

47.
Wellman, H. M. (1990). The child's theory of mind. The MIT Press.

48.
Wellman, H. M. (2010). Developing a theory of mind. In U. Goswami (Ed.), The Blackwell handbook of cognitive development (pp. 258-284). MA: Wiley-BlackWell.

49.
Wellman, H. M., & Bartsch, K. (1988). Young children's reasoning about beliefs. Cognition, 30(3), 239-277. crossref(new window)

50.
Wellman, H. M., Cross, D., & Watson, J. (2001). Meta-analysis of theory-of-mind development: the truth about false belief. Child development, 72(3), 655-684. crossref(new window)

51.
Wimmer, H, & Hartl, M. (1991). The Cartesian view and the theory view of mind: Developmental evidence from understanding false belief in self and other. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9(125), 8.

52.
Wimmer, H., & Perner, J. (1983). Beliefs about beliefs: Representation and constraining function of wrong beliefs in young children's understanding of deception. Cognition, 13(1), 103-128. crossref(new window)

53.
Woolley, J. D. (1995). Young children's understanding of fictional versus epistemic mental representations: Imagination and belief. Child development, 66(4), 1011-1021. crossref(new window)

54.
Zaitchik, D. (1991). Is only seeing really believing?: Sources of the true belief in the false belief task. Cognitive Development, 6(1), 91-103. crossref(new window)

55.
Zhang, T., Zheng, X., Zhang, L., Sha, W., Deak, G., & Li, H. (2010). Older children's misunderstanding of uncertain belief after passing the false belief test. Cognitive Development, 25(2), 158-165. crossref(new window)