Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Stability in Friendship Patterns Among Kindergarteners: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Journal of Child Studies
  • Volume 37, Issue 1,  2016, pp.73-82
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Child Studies
  • DOI : 10.5723/kjcs.2016.37.1.73
 Title & Authors
Stability in Friendship Patterns Among Kindergarteners: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study
Park, Mi Hyun; Park, Kyung Ja;
  PDF(new window)
Objective: This two-wave study examined stability in kindergarteners` friendship patterns over 5 months. Methods: Participants were 501 five-year-old children (262 girls and 239 boys) attending kindergartens in Seoul, Incheon, and Kyounggi provinces in Korea. Each child nominated three individuals as his/her friends in July, and again in December of 2013. Depending on the presence/absence of friendships and the mutuality of identifying friends, the children`s friendship patterns were categorized into five groups: stable, fluid, loss, gain, and friendless. The data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, and chi-square tests. Results: Results revealed stability, as well as changes in friendship patterns, among kindergarteners over the 5-month period. The stable friendships, those that maintained the same friend(s) in both waves, was 43.7%, the fluid friendships, those that changed friends over the 5 month period was 18%, the gain friendships, those who had newly developed friends in wave 2 was 17%, and the loss friendships, those who had friends at wave 1 but lost friends at wave 2, was 9.8%. The friendless, those that had no friends in both waves, was 11.5%. Conclusion: Results showed that kindergarteners were capable of maintaining and making new friends over a 5-month period.
Friendship of kindergarteners;Friendship stability patterns;Short-term longitudinal studyworks;
 Cited by
Benenson, J. F., & Christakos, A. (2003). The greater fragility of females' versus males' closest same-sex friendships. Child Development, 74, 1123-1129. crossref(new window)

Benjamin, W. J., Schneider, B. H., Greenman, P. S., & Hum, M. (2001). Conflict and childhood friendship in Taiwan and Canada. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 33(3), 203-211. crossref(new window)

Berndt, T. J., Hawkins, J. A., & Hoyle, S. G. (1986). Changes in friendship during a school year: Effects on children's and adolescents' impressions of friendship and sharing with friends. Child Development, 57(5), 1284-1297. crossref(new window)

Bukowski, W. M., Buhrmester, D., & Underwood, M. K. (2011). Peer relations as a developmental context. In M. K. Underwood, & L. H. Rosen (Eds.), Social development: Relationships in infancy, childhood, and adolescence (pp. 153-179). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Bukowski, W. M., & Newcomb, A. F. (1984). Stability and determinants of sociometric status and friendship choice: A longitudinal perspective. Developmental Psychology, 20(5), 941-952. crossref(new window)

Bukowski, W. M., & Newcomb, A. F., & Hoza, B. (1987). Friendship conceptions among early adolescents: A longitudinal study of stability and change. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 143-152. crossref(new window)

Cairns, R. B., Leung, M. C., Buchanan, L., & Cairns, B. D. (1995). Friendships and social networks in childhood and adolescence: Fluidity, reliability, and interrelations. Child Development, 66(5), 1330-1345. crossref(new window)

Cillessen, A. H. N. (2009). Sociometric methods. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 82-99). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Engle, J. M., McElwain, N. L., & Lasky, N. (2011). Presence and quality of kindergarten children's friendships: Concurrent and longitudinal associations with child adjustment in the early school years. Infant and Child Development, 20(4), 365-386. crossref(new window)

Erwin, P. (1993). Friendship and peer relations in children. Chichester, UK: Wiley & Sons.

Fabes, R. A., Hanish, L. D., & Martin, C. L. (2003). Children at play: The role of peers in understanding the effects of child care. Child Development, 74(4), 1039-1043. crossref(new window)

Furman, W. (1996). The measurement of friendship perceptions: Conceptual and methodological issues. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F .Newcobm, W. W. Hartup (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence (pp. 41-65). New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.

Gershman, E. S., & Hayes, D. S. (1983). Differential stability of reciprocal friendships and unilateral relationships among preschool children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29(2), 168-177.

Gifford-Smith, M. E., & Brownell, C. A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships: Social acceptance, friendships and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41(4), 235-284. crossref(new window)

Gottman, J. M. (1983). How children become friends. Monograhps of the Society for Research in Child Development. 48(3), 1-83.

Hay, D. F., Payne, A., & Chadwick, A. (2004). Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45(1), 84-108. crossref(new window)

Howes, C. (1988). Peer interaction of young children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 53(1), 1-92.

Howes, C. (2009). Friendship in early childhood. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 180-194). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Howes, C., & Phillipsen, L. (1992). Gender and friendship: Relationships with peer groups of young children. Social Development, 1(3), 230-242. crossref(new window)

Kostelnik, M. J., Whiren, A. P., Soderman, A. K., & Gregory, K. M. (2009). Guiding children's social development and learning (K. J. Park, S, Y, Kim, Y. H. Kwon, & J. H. Kim Trans.). Paju, Korea: Gyomoon publishers. (Original work published 2008)

Ladd, G. W., & Burgess, K. B. (1999). Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn, and aggressive/withdrawn children during early grade school. Child Development, 70(4), 910-929. crossref(new window)

Ladd, G. W., Kochenderfer, B. J., & Coleman, C. C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children's early school adjustment. Child Development, 67(3), 1103-1118. crossref(new window)

Ladd, G. W., & Troop-Gordon, W. (2003). The role of chronic peer difficulties in the development of children's psychological adjustment problems. Child Development, 74(5), 1344-1367. crossref(new window)

Lindsey, E. W. (2002). Preschool children's friendships and peer acceptance: Links to social competence. Child Study Journal, 32(3), 145-155.

Martin, C. L., & Fabes, R. A. (2001). The stability and consequences of young children's same-sex peer interactions. Developmental Psychology, 37(3), 431-446. crossref(new window)

Mendelson, M. J., Aboud, F. E., & Lanthier, R. P. (1994). Personality predictors of friendship and popularity in kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15(3), 413-435. crossref(new window)

Newcomb, A. F., & Bagwell, C. L. (1995). Children's friendship relations: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 306-347. crossref(new window)

Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1993). Friendship and friendship quality in middle childhood: Links with peer group acceptance and feelings of loneliness and social dissatisfaction. Developmental Psychology, 29(4), 611-621. crossref(new window)

Poulin, F., & Chan, A. (2010). Friendship stability and change in childhood and adolescence. Developmental Review, 30(3), 257-272. crossref(new window)

Proulx, M., & Poulin, F. (2013). Stability and change in kindergarteners' Friendships: Exmination of links with social functioning. Social Development, 22(1), 111-125. crossref(new window)

Quinn, M., & Hennessy, E. (2010). Peer relationships across the preschool to school transition. Early Education and Development, 21(6), 825-842. crossref(new window)

Roopnarine, J. L., & Field, T. M. (1984). Play interactions of friends and acquaintances in nursey school. In T. Field, J. Roopnarine, & M. Segal (Eds.), Friendships in normal and handicapped children (pp. 89-98). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.

Rose-Krasnor, L., & Denham, S. (2009). Social-emotional competence in early childhood. In K. H. Rubin, W. M. Bukowski, & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 162-192). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.

Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of sex differences in peer relationships processes: Potential trade-offs for the emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 98-131. crossref(new window)

Rubin, K. H., Bukowski, W., & Parker, J. G. (2006). Peer interactions relationships, and groups. In N. Eisenber, W. Damon, & R. M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (6th ed., Vol 3, pp. 571-645). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Rubin, K. H., Coplan, R. J., Chen, X., Buskirk, A. A., & Wojslawowicz, J. C. (2005). Peer relationships in childhood. In M. H. Bornstein & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Developmental science: An advanced textbook (5th ed., pp. 469-512). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbauum Associates.

Schneider, B. H., Fonzi, A. F., Tani, F., & Tomade, G. (1997). A cross-cultural exploration of the stability of children's friendships and the predictors of their continuation, Social Development, 6(3), 322-339. crossref(new window)

Sebanc, A. M. (2003). The friendship features of preschool children: Links with prosocial behavior and aggression. Social Development, 12(2), 249-268. crossref(new window)

Sebanc, A. M., Kearns, K. T., Hernandez, M. D., & Galvin, K. B. (2007). Predicting having a best friend in young children: Individual characteristics and friendship features. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 168(1), 81-95. crossref(new window)

Selman, R. L. (1980). The growth of interpersonal understanding: Developmental and clinical analysis. New York, NY: Academic Press.

Shin, N., Kim, M., Goetz, S., & Vaughn, B. E. (2014). Dyadic analyses of preschool-aged children's friendships: Convergence and differences between friendship classifications from peer sociometric data and teacher's reports. Social Development, 23(1), 178-195. crossref(new window)

Vaughn, B. E., Azria, M. R., Krzysik, L., Caya, L. R., Bost, K. K., Newell, W., & Kazura, K. L. (2000). Friendship and social competence in a sample of preschool children attending head start. Developmental Psychology, 36(3), 326-338. crossref(new window)

Wojslawowicz Bowker, J. C., Rubin, K. H., Burgess, K. B., Booth-LaForce, C., & Rose-Krasnor, L. (2006). Behavioral characteristics associated with stable and fluid best friendship patterns in middle childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 52(4), 671-693. crossref(new window)