Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Effect of Sleep Duration on Youth School Adjustment Mediated by Parenting Behavior
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Journal of Child Studies
  • Volume 37, Issue 3,  2016, pp.13-26
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Child Studies
  • DOI : 10.5723/kjcs.2016.37.3.13
 Title & Authors
The Effect of Sleep Duration on Youth School Adjustment Mediated by Parenting Behavior
Kim, Soo Jung; Chung, Ick-Joong;
  PDF(new window)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and school adjustment of elementary-, middle-, high-school youth and to verify the mediating effects of parenting behavior. Methods: We analyzed the data from Wave 4 of the first-grade panel of elementary school and Waves 1 and 4 of the first-grade panel of middle school in Korean Children and Youth Panel Survey (KCYPS), including 1,703 fourth graders, 2,119 seventh graders, and 2,108 tenth graders. Multiple regression was used for the data analyses. Results: The results of this study were as follows. First, longer sleep duration was associated with a higher level of school adjustment in fourth grade. In contrast, longer sleep duration was associated with a lower level of school adjustment in seventh and tenth grades. Second, longer sleep duration was related to a higher level of discipline through reasoning in fourth grade. However, longer sleep duration was related to a lower level of parental monitoring in seventh and tenth grades. Third, the relationship between sleep duration and school adjustment was mediated by parenting behavior. Discipline through reasoning had a mediating effect in fourth grade, but the mediating effect of parental monitoring was found in seventh and tenth grades. Conclusion: These results suggest a differentiated approach on sleep duration in accordance with developmental stage and the need for parent education.
sleep duration;school adjustment;parenting behavior;parental monitoring;overprotection;discipline through reasoning;
 Cited by
BaHammam, A., Al-Faris, E., Shaikh, S., & Saeed, A. B. (2006). Sleep problems/habits and school performance in elementary school children. Sleep and Hypnosis, 8(1), 12-18. Retrieved from

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research:Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. crossref(new window)

Bates, J. E., Viken, R. J., Alexander, D. B., Beyers, J., & Stockton, L. (2002). Sleep and adjustment in preschool children: Sleep diary reports by mothers relate to behavior reports by teachers. Child Development, 73(1), 62-74. doi:10.1111/1467-8624.00392 crossref(new window)

Beebe, D. W. (2011). Cognitive, behavioral, and functional consequences of inadequate sleep in children and adolescents. The Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 649-666. doi:10.1016/j.pcl.2011.03.002 crossref(new window)

Brand, S., Gerber, M., Hatzinger, M., Beck, J., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2009b). Evidence for similarities between adolescents and parents in sleep patterns. Sleep Medicine, 10(10), 1124-1131. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2008.12.013 crossref(new window)

Brand, S., Hatzinger, M., Beck, J., & Holsboer-Trachsler, E. (2009a). Perceived parenting styles, personality traits and sleep patterns in adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 32(5), 1189-1207. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2009.01.010 crossref(new window)

Bruni, O., Ferini-Strambi, L., Russo, P. M., Antignani, M., Innocenzi, M., Ottaviano, P., ... Salvatore, O. (2006). Sleep disturbances and teacher ratings of school achievement and temperament in children. Sleep Medicine, 7(1), 43-48. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2005.09.003 crossref(new window)

Chung, K.-F., & Cheung, M.-M. (2008). Sleep-wake patterns and sleep disturbance among Hong Kong Chinese adolescents. Sleep, 31(2), 185-196. Retrieved from

Coulombe, J. A., Reid, G. J., Boyle, M. H., & Racine, Y. (2011). Sleep problems, tiredness, and psychological symptoms among healthy adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(1), 25-35. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsq028 crossref(new window)

de Jong, E., Stocks, T., Visscher, T. L., HiraSing, R. A., Seidell, J. C., & Renzaho, A. (2012). Association between sleep duration and overweight. International Journal of Obesity, 36, 1278-1284. doi:10.1038/ijo.2012.119 crossref(new window)

Dewald, J. F., Meijer, A. M., Oort, F. J., Kerkhof, G. A., & Bogels, S. M. (2010). The influence of sleep quality, sleep duration and sleepiness on school performance in children and adolescents: A meta-analytic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(3), 179-189. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.10.004 crossref(new window)

Drake, C., Nickel, C., Burduvali, E., Roth, T., Jefferson, C., & Pietro, B. (2003). The Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS): Sleep habits and school outcomes in middle school children. Sleep, 26(4), 455-460. Retrieved from

Fredriksen, K., Rhodes, J., Reddy, R., & Way, N. (2004). Sleepless in Chicago: Tracking the effects of adolescent sleep loss during the middle school years. Child Development, 75(1), 84-95. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00655.x crossref(new window)

Gruber, R., Laviolette, R., Deluca, P., Monson, E., Cornish, K., & Carrier, J. (2010). Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children. Sleep Medicine, 11(3), 289-294. doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2009.09.007 crossref(new window)

Hirshkowitz, M., Whiton, K., Albert, S. M., Alessi, C., Bruni, O., DonCarlos, L., ... Neubauer, D. N. (2015). National Sleep Foundation's sleep time duration recommendations: Methodology and results summary. Sleep Health, 1(1), 40-45. doi:10.1016/j.sleh.2014.12.010 crossref(new window)

Kalak, N., Gerber, M., Kirov, R., Mikoteit, T., Puhse, U., Holsboer-Trachsler, E., & Brand, S. (2012). The relation of objective sleep patterns, depressive symptoms, and sleep disturbances in adolescent children and their parents: A sleep-EEG study with 47 families. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 46(10), 1374-1382. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.07.006 crossref(new window)

Kerr, M., & Stattin, H. (2003). Parenting of adolescents: Action or reaction? In A. Crouther & A. Booth (Eds.), Children's influence on family dynamics: The neglected side of family relationships (pp. 121-151). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Retrieved from

Labree, L. J. W., van de Mheen, H., Rutten, F. F. H., Rodenburg, G., Koopans, G. T., & Foets, M. (2015). Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins. Journal Public Health, 23(3), 149-156. doi:10.1007/s10389-015-0665-8 crossref(new window)

Lazaratou, H., Dikeos D. G., Anagnostopoulos, D. C., Sbokou O., & Soldatos, C. R. (2005). Sleep problems in adolescence: A study of senior high school students in Greece. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(4), 237-243. doi:10.1007/s00787-005-0460-0 crossref(new window)

Martin, J., Hiscock, H., Hardy, P., Davey, B., & Wake, M. (2007). Adverse associations of infant and child sleep problems and parent health: An Australian population study. Pediatrics, 119(5), 947-955. doi:10.1542/peds.2006-2569 crossref(new window)

Meijer, A. M., Habekothe, R. T., & van den Wittenboer, G. L. (2001). Mental health, parental rules, and sleep in preadolescents. Journal of Sleep Research, 10(4), 297-302. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2869.2001.00265.x crossref(new window)

Meltzer, L. J., & Mindell, J. A. (2007). Relationship between child sleep disturbances and maternal sleep, mood, and parenting stress: A pilot study. Journal of Family Psychology, 21(1), 67-73. doi:10.1037/0893-3200.21.1.67 crossref(new window)

Owens-Stively, J., Frank, A., Hagino, O., Spirito, A., Arrigan, M., & Alario, A. J. (1997). Child temperament, parenting discipline style, and daytime behavior in childhood sleep disorders. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 18(5), 314-321. crossref(new window)

Perkinson-Gloor, N., Lemola, S., & Grob. A. (2013). Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: The role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 311-318. doi:10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.11.008 crossref(new window)

Philips, N., Sioen, I., Michels, N., Sleddens, E., & de Henauw, S. (2014). The influence of parenting style on health related behavior of children: Findings from the ChiBS study. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 11(1), 1-23. doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0095-y crossref(new window)

Reitz, E., Dekovic, M., Meijer, A. M., & Engels, R. C. M. E. (2006). Longitudinal relations among parenting, best friends, and early adolescent problem behavior testing bidirectional effects. Journal of Early Adolescent, 26(3), 272-295. doi:10.1177/0272431606288591 crossref(new window)

Sadeh, A., Tikotzky, L., & Scher, A. (2010). Parenting and infant. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(2), 89-96. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2009.05.003 crossref(new window)

Seifer, R., Sameroff, A. J., Dickstein, S., Hayden, L. C., & Schiller, M. (1996). Parental psychopathology and sleep variation in children. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 5(3), 715-727.

Shochat, T., Cohen-Zion, M., & Tzischinsky, O. (2014). Functional consequences of inadequate sleep in adolescents:A systematic review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 18(1), 75-87. doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2013.03.005 crossref(new window)

Smedje, H., Broman, J.-E., & Hetta, J. (1998). Sleep disturbances in Swedish pre-school children and their parents. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 52(1), 59-67. doi:10.1080/080394898422580 crossref(new window)

Spilsbury, J. C., Storfer-lasser, A., Drotar, D., Rosen, C. L., Kirchner, L. H., & Redline, S. (2005). Effects of the home environment on school-aged children's sleep. Pediatrics, 28(11), 1419-1427. Retrieved from

Wolfson, A. R., & Carskadon, M. A. (1998). Sleep schedules and daytime functioning in adolescents. Child Development, 69(4), 875-887. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06149.x crossref(new window)

Yang, C.-K., Kim, J. K., Patel, S. R., & Lee, J.-H. (2005). Agerelated changes in sleep/wake patterns among Korean teenagers. Pediatrics, 115(1), 250-256. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-0815G crossref(new window)

Bae, J.-I. (2014). Infant problem behaviors and adaptation in child care centers: The influences of a mother and infant sleep problems. The Journal of Korea Open Association for Early Childhood Education, 19(4), 125-143.

Choi, K. I. (2012). An effect of sleeping time on school adaptation of youths: Mediated by depression and ability of selfprotection. Forum for Youth Culture, 30, 126-166.

Ha, Y. M., & Park, H. J. (2014). Relationships between short sleep, obesity, and screen time in high school students. Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science, 16(2), 80-89. doi:10.7586/jkbns.2014.16.2.80 crossref(new window)

Huh, M. Y. (2000). The study for the development and validation of 'parenting behavior inventory' perceived by adolescent (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Jeong, J.-H., Jang, Y.-E., Lee, H.-W., Shim, H.-B., & Choi, J.-S. (2013). Sleep and suicidal risk factors in Korean high school students. Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, 20(1), 22-30. doi:10.14401/KASMED.2013.20.1.022 crossref(new window)

Jeong, S. H. (2009). A study on longitudinal interaction between parenting behavior and adolescents' delinquency. Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies, 40(4), 349-376.

Kim, S. J., & Chung, I.-J. (2015a). Bidirectional associations between the negative emotionality of 0-to 3-year-old children and maternal warmth/reactivity. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 36(4), 1-16. crossref(new window)

Kim, S. J., & Chung, I.-J. (2015b, Oct). The effect of sleep duration on youth's school adjustment mediated by parenting behavior. Paper presented at 5th Conference of Korea Children and Youth Panel, Seoul, Korea.

Lee, B.-H., & Kang, D. K. (2014). A study of school maladjustment action factors in secondary school students. Journal of Education and Culture, 20(3). 125-148.

Lee, J. G., Kang, J. G., Rhie, S. K., & Chae, K. Y. (2013). Impact of sleep duration on emotional status in adolescents. Journal of Korea Child Neurology Society, 21(3), 100-110.

Lee, S. G. (2012). Longitudinal analysis on the relationship between parenting behaviors and delinquent behaviors in adolescence. Korean Journal of Family Social Work, 36(6), 157-185.

Min, B. S. (1991). The influence of school life adjustment and selfconcept on academic achievement (Unpublished master's thesis). Hongik University, Seoul, Korea.

Park, H. J. (2015). Effect of sleep duration on suicidal ideation in Korean adolescents. The Journal of the Korean Society of School Health, 28(1), 1-9. crossref(new window)

Park, N. R., & Chung, I. J. (2012). The influence of parental neglect and overprotection on youth's psychosocial adjustment:Focusing on moderating effect of private tutoring. Journal of the Korean Society of Child Welfare, 37, 139-164.

Park, Y. H. (2014). Role of self-regulation in the relations among media use, emotional-behavioral problems, and school adjustment for middle school students. Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 28(4), 691-710. doi:10.17286/KJEP.2014.28.4.07 crossref(new window)

Rhie, S. K., Lee, S. H., & Chae, K. Y. (2011). Sleep patterns and school performance of Korean adolescents assessed using a Korean version of the pediatric daytime sleepiness scale. Korean Journal of Pediatrics, 54(1), 29-35. doi:10.3345/kjp.2011.54.1.29 crossref(new window)

Seo, W. S., Koo, B. H., Kim, M. J., Rho, Y. H., Sung, H. M., & Shin, J. H. (2008). Preliminary study of children's sleep problems in an elementary school in Daegu. Korean Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 19(3), 156-161

Song, H. S., Park, Y. M., Nam, M., & Kim, L. (2000). Sleep patterns of middle and high school students in Seoul. Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, 7(1), 51-59.

Statistics Korea. (2014). Life style survey. Retrieved from

Yoo, K.-H. (2004). A survey study on the sleep in adolescence. Journal of Soonchunhyang Medical Science, 10(3), 2025-2530.