Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Relationships Between Negative Affect, Social Support, and Career Maturity Among Adolescents
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Korean Journal of Child Studies
  • Volume 37, Issue 3,  2016, pp.53-68
  • Publisher : Korean Association of Child Studies
  • DOI : 10.5723/kjcs.2016.37.3.53
 Title & Authors
The Relationships Between Negative Affect, Social Support, and Career Maturity Among Adolescents
Choi, Mi-Kyung;
  PDF(new window)
Objective: This study examined the relationships between negative affect, social support, and career maturity among adolescents. Methods: The participants in this study comprised 260 junior high school students in a Seoul metropolitan area. They completed questionnaires on level of negative affect, social support, and career maturity. Data were analyzed by means of basic descriptive statistics, Pearson's correlations, and multiple and hierarchical regression analyses. Aiken and West's method was used to determine the interactive model's modality. Results: The major findings were as follows: First, negative affect was negatively correlated with social support and career maturity. Social support was positively correlated with career maturity. Second, significant interaction effects were found between negative affect and social support on career maturity; that is, for male students, significant interaction effects were found between negative affect and social support (parent support) on career maturity (career determinacy/career independence). For female students, significant interaction effects were found between negative affect and social support (peer support) on career maturity (career confidence/career readiness/career determinacy/career independence). Conclusion: These results suggest the need to intervene in relation to social support (parent support/peer support) and to improve career maturity among adolescents.
negative affect;social support;career maturity;
 Cited by
Aiken, L. S., & West, S. G. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interaction. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research:Conceptual, strategic, and statistical consideration. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182. crossref(new window)

Berry, W. D., & Feldman, S. (1985). Multiple regression in practice:Quantitative applications in the social sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.

Crites, J. O., & Savickas, M. L. (1996). Revision of the career maturity inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 4(2), 131-138. crossref(new window)

Dowd, E. T. (1995). Cognitive career assessment: Concepts and applications. Journal of Career Assessment, 3(1), 1-20. crossref(new window)

Dubow, E. F., & Tisak, J. (1989). The relation between stressful life events and adjustment in elementary school children:The role of social support and social problem-solving skills. Child Development, 60(6), 1412-1423. crossref(new window)

Gadassi, R., Waser, A., & Gati, I. (2015). Gender differences in the association of depression with career indecisiveness, career-decision status, and career-preference crystallization. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 62(4), 632-641. crossref(new window)

Gordon, M. (2003). Roots of empathy: Responsive parenting, caring societies. Keio Journal of medicine, 52(4), 236-243. crossref(new window)

Gordon, M., & Cui, M. (2015). Positive parenting during adolescence and career success in young adulthood. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 762-771. crossref(new window)

Gottfredson, L. S. (1996). Gottfredson's theory of circumscription and compromise. In D. Brown & L. Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (3rd ed., pp. 179-232). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Jaana J., Adrienne N., & Sandra G. (2000). Peer harassment, psychological adjustment, and school functioning in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(2), 349-359. crossref(new window)

Lamb. M. E. (1981). Fathers and child development: An integrative overview. In M. E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (Rev. ed., pp. 1-70). New York: Wiley.

Peterson, A. C., & Crockett, L. (1985). Pubertal timing and grade effects on adjustment. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 14(3), 191-206. crossref(new window)

Rose, A. J., & Rudolph, K. D. (2006). A review of differences in peer relationship processes: Potential trade-off or emotional and behavioral development of girls and boys. Psychological Bulletin, 132(1), 98-131. crossref(new window)

Sebald, H. (1989). Adolescents' peer orientation: Changes in the support system during the past three decades. Adolescence, 24(96), 937-946.

Supper, D. E. (1969). Vocational development theory: Persons, positions, and process. The Counseling Psychologist, 1(1), 2-9.

Thorndike, R. L. (1982). Applied psychometrics. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.

Ahn, H.-M. (2013). The effect of mothers' reactions to children's negative motions and emotion regulation on problem behavior in middle childhood (Unpublished master's thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Ahn, J. J. (2014). A study on the relationship of communication between parents-child and youth children's self-esteem: Focusing on the nonverbal communication and topics (Unpublished master's thesis). Korea National Open University, Seoul, Korea.

Cho, M.-J. (2010). The effects of career maturity of college students on job-seeking anxiety and stress (Unpublished master's thesis). Dong-A University, Busan, Korea.

Cho, M.-S., & Choi, K.-S. (2007). A model testing on egoidentity, social support, career decision-making self efficacy, career maturity, and career preparation behavior in late adolescence. Korea Journal of Counseling, 8(3), 1085-1099. crossref(new window)

Choi, I. (2012). Effects of maternal parenting behavior on early adolescents' depression according to sex: Moderating effects of social support and negative emotional experience. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 19(1), 135-160.

Choi, M.-K. (2013). The relationships between career maturity, anxiety and school related adjustments levels of adolescents. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 34(4), 65-81. crossref(new window)

Choi, M.-K. (2015). The relationships between irrational beliefs, communication with parents and career maturity of adolescents. Korean Journal of Youth Studies, 22(3), 287-321.

Doh, H. S., Kim, S. H., Kim. H. S., & Choi, M. K. (2012). Human development and family. Paju: Kyomunsa.

Gang, W. I. (2005). The study on the social net-work and school satisfaction of the elementary school child in rural school (Unpublished master's thesis). Daejeon University, Daejeon, Korea.

Han, S. M. (2013). The influence of high school students' career selfefficacy and parent support upon career maturity according to gender (Unpublished master's thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Hong, S. H. (2005). Binary and a multiple logistic regression analysis. Paju: Kyoyookbook.

Jo, E. (2014). The effects of perceived social support on happiness of the children and young people: Focused on children and young people from low-income families. Forum for Youth Culture, 37, 103-126. crossref(new window)

Jun, D.-J. (2012). The relationship of adolescents' optimism, perceived social support and school happiness (Unpublished master's thesis). Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.

Kang, M. H. (1999). The influence of irrational beliefs of elementary schoolchildren on depression, anxiety, and school life adaptation (Unpublished master's thesis). Hanyang University, Seoul, Korea.

Kim, A. S. (2008). The relationship between parent-adolescent communication styles and their career decision-making perceived by middle school students (Unpublished master's thesis). Daejin University, Pocheon, Korea.

Kim, M. H. (2015). Influence of emotional stability and social support of adolescents on occupational values (Unpublished master's thesis). Gwangju National University of Education, Gwangju, Korea.

Kim, S.-H. (2001). A study of comparison on degree of career maturity according to area and department of high school students (Unpublished master's thesis). Kangwon University, Chuncheon, Korea.

Kim, Y. N. (2009). A study on the relations between the youth's career maturity and school adjustment (Unpublished master's thesis). Catholic University, Seoul, Korea.

Kwak, E. Y. (2011). Father attachment, mother attachment and peer relationships: The interaction effect of emotional abilities (Unpublished master's thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Kwak, M.-K., & Seo, B.-J. (2011). The influence which the selfflexibility and the social support felt by the teenagers living in the grandparents-children families have on the adaptation to school life. Journal of Public Welfare Administration, 21(1), 75-112.

Kwak, S. G. (2015, November 28). Free term system, private educational institute exciting than students. The Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved from

Kwark, S. J. (2005). Father with communication, educational expectation, the educational support to by adolescent affect self efficiency and achievement motivation (Unpublished master's thesis). Ewha Womans University, Seoul, Korea.

Lee, C. K. (1998). A study on psychological variables influence on career attitude maturity (Unpublished master's thesis). Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Lee, E. J. (2010). A study on the impact of adolescents' social networks on their subjective well-being (Unpublished master's thesis). Kyungsung University, Pusan, Korea.

Lee, J.-I. (2015). Relations of middle school student's career maturity and depression and anxiety (Unpublished master's thesis). Chungnam National University, Daeieon, Korea.

Lee, K.-H. (2001). A cross-cultural study of the career maturity of korean and united states high school students. Journal of Career Development, 28(1), 43-58. crossref(new window)

Lee, S.-J. (2003). A study of the career maturity on student's characteristics in general high school's vocational course (Unpublished master's thesis). Korea University of Technology and Education, Seoul, Korea.

Lee, S.-K. (2002). The influence of mother-daughter facilitative communication, family adaptability and cohesion, and daughter's satisfaction on mother's working or non-working status on high school girls' maturity of career attitude (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Lim, M.-H., & Park, Y.-S. (2006). A study of happiness among Korean adolescents: With specific focusing on elementary and middle school students. Journal of Education & Culture, 12, 159-179.

Ministry of Education. (2015). 2015 free semester system for improvement of dreams and talent. Sejong: Ministry of Education.

Mun, S. H. (2012). A comparative study of the influence of relationship with parents, peer and teacher on academic self-efficacy and achievement motivation in early and middle adolescence (Unpublished master's thesis). Mokpo National University, Muan, Korea.

Nam, H.-K. (2002). The relationship among family relations, ego strength and negative affects in interpersonal relations (Unpublished master's thesis). Catholic University, Seoul, Korea.

National Statistical Office. (2013). Social survey. Daejeon: National Statistical Office.

Park, H.-H., & Seong, T.-J. (2008). The longitudinal mediation effect of parent-adolescent relationships on career maturity development according to gender. Studies on Korean Youth, 19(1), 117-142.

Park, H. J., & Kim, B. W. (2006). The relationships among psychological independence, career decision level, and career preparation behavior in high school students. Korean Journal of Counseling and Psychology, 18(2), 419-439.

Park, S.-Y., & Cho, S.-H .(2015). Formation of social relationship through SNS and adolescents' life satisfaction. Journal of Digital Convergence, 13(2), 371-379. crossref(new window)

Park, Y.-S., Kim, Y.-C., & Min, B.-K. (2002). The influence of parental social support on self-efficacy and life-satisfaction. The Korean Journal of Educational Psychology, 16(2), 63-92.

Roh, B. (2013). A longitudinal study of the developmental trajectory of the career maturity of adolescents: The impact of economic instability and leisure. Studies on Korean Youth, 24(3). 171-193.

Seol, C. M. (2010). The relationship between juvenile mental health, attachment to friends and parents and career maturity (Unpublished master's thesis). Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, Korea.

Shin, M., Jeon, S. H., & Yoo, M. S. (2012). Analysis of the structural relationship between social relationships, selfesteem, life satisfaction, and school adjustment in early adolescents. Korean Journal of Child Studies, 33(1), 81-92. crossref(new window)

Shin, M. J. (2011). Gender differences in depression and anxiety among Korean adolescents: Onset and developmental change (Unpublished master's thesis). Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Sung, S. J. (2010). Analysis of the causal relationships of the factors related to school adjustment of adolescents (Unpublished master's thesis). Chungbuk National University, Cheongju, Korea.

Whang, M. H. (2013). The relationship between middle school student's problematic communication with parents and negative emotion: Regulation effect of positive peer relationship (Unpublished master's thesis). Ajou University, Suwon, Korea.

Woo, Y. R., & Nho, C. R. (2014). Mediating effects of sense of community solidarity between emotional and aggressive problems and school adjustments among adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Welfare, 16(2), 203-227.

Youn, J. H. (2015). Influences of the social comparison orientation and the fear of negative evaluation of high school students on their career decisions level and career preparation behaviors (Unpublished master's thesis). Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul, Korea.