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Effects of Ramp Slope and Height on Usability and Physiology during Wheelchair Driving
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 Title & Authors
Effects of Ramp Slope and Height on Usability and Physiology during Wheelchair Driving
Kim, Chung-Sik; Lee, Dong-Hun; Lee, Jee-Hea; Kwon, Sung-Hyuk; Chung, Min-K.;
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Although the height of a ramp is an important design element, it has not been considered in prior studies. Therefore, in this study, the ramp slope and height are considered as independent variables. To analyze the effects of the slope and height, five levels of slope (1:6, 1:8, 1:10, 1:12 and 1:14) and three levels of height (15cm, 30cm and 45cm) are considered. For the dependent variables, the total time, velocity and perceived discomfort were considered as usability measures, pulse rate changes and EMG signals of four related muscles (extensor carpi radialis, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid and posterior deltoid) were considered as physiology measures. As a result, differences among usability and physiological characteristic for the five slopes increased as the height increased. Additionally, slope effects were minor when the height was low (15cm). Almost domestic/international regulations and guidelines related to ramp recommended 1:12 slope for the ramp design, however, there was no significant difference between 1:10 and 1:12 according to result of this study. In addition, slope effects were minor at a low height; thus, a slope of 1:8 can be recommended if the installation space for a gentler ramp is not sufficient.
Ramp slope;Ramp height;Wheelchair driving;Ramp usability;
 Cited by
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