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Biomechanical Evaluation of the Neck and Shoulder When Using Pillows with Various Inner Materials
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 Title & Authors
Biomechanical Evaluation of the Neck and Shoulder When Using Pillows with Various Inner Materials
Kim, Jung-Yong; Park, Ji-Soo; Park, Dae-Eun;
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Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate of various material of pillows by using biomechanical variables such as the cervical stability, head pressure distribution, and muscle activity. Method: Eight subjects participated in the experiment. Three different materials such as polyester sponge, memory foam and the buckwheat shell used for Korean traditional pillow were tested. Electro-goniometer, six channels of electromyography(EMG), ten channels of the head pressure sensors were used to measure the biomechanical responses. Surface electrodes were attached to the right/left semispinals capitis(RSC, LSC), the right/left sternocleidomastoid(RSM, LSM), the right/left upper trapezius(RUT, LUT). The cervical stability was evaluated by the angle deviated from the standing neck position. The head pressure distribution was evaluated by the pressure per unit area recorded on the sensors and the intensity of peak pressure. Electromyography(EMG) data were analyzed by using root mean square(RMS) and mean power frequency(MPF). Results: The buckwheat shell material showed a higher stability in the cervical spine then the other pillows during spine position. In terms of head pressure distribution, the memory form indicated the lowest pressure at supine position, buckwheat shell material indicated the lowest pressure during lying down to side, and polyester cushion recorded the highest pressure at all postures. Conclusion: The buckwheat shell material has a biomechanical advantage to maintain a healthy neck angle and reduce the pressure on the head, which means the buckwheat shell is a potential material for ergonomic pillow design. The pillow with memory form showed second best biomechanical performance in this study. Application: The shape of the buckwheat shell pillow and the characteristics of materials can be used to design the pillow preventing neck pain and cervical disk problems.
Buckwheat shell pillow;Cervical stability;EMG;Head surface pressure;
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