Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Problem Analysis and Recommendations for Using Manual Wheelchair for One-hand Users
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Problem Analysis and Recommendations for Using Manual Wheelchair for One-hand Users
Park, Gemus; Hwang, Jung Bo; Jung, Hwa Shik;
  PDF(new window)
Objective: This study was conducted for one-hand users including hemiplegic clients currently using general folding manual wheelchairs, so as to analyze their specific problems and recommend solutions regarding usage. Background: Traditional manual wheelchairs require considerable use and control of both hands for operation, thus adaptations become necessary for individuals with asymmetrical use of hands. Method: Thirty hemiplegic clients who were admitted to rehabilitation and convalescent hospitals participated as subjects. The research tools were general folding manual wheelchairs commonly used by people with impaired gait, and the Wheelchair Skills Tests (WST) WST-M/WCU 4.1 version was adopted as the assessment tool. All participants were asked to fill out questionnaires on demographics and wheelchair usage characteristics. Assessment procedures were performed with currently used manual wheelchairs and with/without the use of foot to control the wheelchair. Results: When the participants drove folding manual wheelchairs without the use of foot, even the lowest failure rate among the WST items tested recorded 96.7%. On the contrary, with the use of foot in maneuvering the wheelchairs, failure rates dropped noticeably and success rate among the WST items tested was as high as 86.7%. Conclusion: These findings imply that the use of one-arm (hand) propellable (drivable) wheelchair can be an active and effective solution in resolving problems for hemiplegic clients using existing manual wheelchairs. As such, the government should provide institutional support to further develop and distribute this device or technology, and promote relative research in tandem. For now, the supply of commercially available device to hemiplegic clients is deemed urgent and also a mechanism to provide the devices and relevant services. Application: This study offers viable solutions for hemiplegic clients who rely on existing manual wheelchairs to increase their mobility and occupational performance.
Wheelchair;Manual wheelchair;Wheelchair Skills Test (WST);Hemiplegia;Mobility;One-hand manual wheelchair;
 Cited by
Attali, Xavier, and Pelisse, Francois, Looking back on the evolution of electric wheelchairs, Medical engineering & physics, 23(10), 735-743, 2001. crossref(new window)

Batavia, M., The Wheelchair evaluation: A practical guide. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998.

Bell, Paulette, and Hinojosa, Jim, Perception of the impact of assistive devices on daily life of three individuals with quadriplegia. Assistive technology, 7(2), 87-94, 1995. crossref(new window)

Charbonneau, R., Kirby, R.L. and Thompson, K., Manual Wheelchair Propulsion by People With Hemiplegia: Within-Participant Comparisons of Forward Versus Backward Techniques, Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 94(9), 1707-1713, 2013. crossref(new window)

Coolen, A.L., Kirby, R.L., Landry, J., MacPhee, A.H., Dupuis, D., Smith, C., et al., Wheelchair skills training program for clinicians: a randomized controlled trial with occupational therapy students. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 85(7), 1160-1167, 2004. crossref(new window)

Dalhousie University, wheelchair skills program (wsp) 4.1 obstacle course guidelines, 2009,, (retrieved March 26, 2013).

Drivemedical, Drive medical design and manufacturing,, (retrieved May 27, 2013).

Everest, Herbert A., Folding wheel chair, US Patent 2095411, 1937.

Jo, J.D., The Effect of Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) on Wheelchair Performance, Graduate School of Korea Nazarene, 2010.

Jung, D.H., Kwon, H.C., Gong, J.Y., Koo, H.M. and Chae, S.Y., Wheelchair users and postural seating: A clinical approach, Jungdammedia, Seoul, Korea, 2005.

Kang, T.S., Kim, N.Y., Kim, M.H., Kim, M.K., Kim, C.G., Son, Y.M. and Kim, J.C., "Design of the One-Hand Wheelchair using the Mechanical Elements", Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference, 671- 672, October 2011.

Kim, H-H. and Chang, M-Y., Effect of Sitting Position and Satisfaction on Wheelchair Sitting Education in Hemiparesis Patients, The Journal of Korean Society of Occupational Therapy, 21(3), 103-114, 2013.

Kim, Y.H., Han, T.R., Jung, H.Y., Chun, M.H., Lee, J., Kim, D.Y. and Pyun, S.B., Clinical practice guideline for stroke rehabilitation in Korea, Brain Neurorehabilitation, 2, 1-38, 2009. crossref(new window)

Kirby, R.L., Dupuis, D.J., MacPhee, A.H., Coolen, A.L., Smith, C., Best, K.L. and Bonaparte, J.P., The wheelchair skills test (version 2.4): measurement properties, Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 85(5), 794-804, 2004. crossref(new window)

Kirby, R.L., Adams, C.D., MacPhee, A.H., Coolen, A.L., Harrison, E.R., Eskes, G.A. and Dupuis, D.J., Wheelchair-skill performance: Controlled comparison between people with hemiplegia and able-bodied people simulating hemiplegia, Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 86(3), 387-393, 2005. crossref(new window)

Kirby, R.L., Ethans, K.D., Duggan, R.E, Saunders-Green, L.A., Lugar, J.A. and Harrison, E.R., Wheelchair Propulsion: Descriptive Comparison of Hemiplegic and Two-Hand Patterns During Selected Activities, American journal of physical medicine & rehabilitation, 78(2), 131-135, 1999. crossref(new window)

Kirby, R.L., Cher, S., Kim, P., Donald, A., Mike, M.A., Paula, W.R. and Francois, R., Wheelchair Skills Training Program (WSTP) Manual version 4.1. Wheelchair Skills Program, Dalhousie University, 2008,, (retrieved March 26, 2013).

Kirby, R.L., Wheelchair Skills Program (WSP) Version 4.1. Wheelchair Skills Test (WST) Manual 2007, Dalhousie University, 2007,, (retrieved March 26, 2013).

Koo, H.M., Jeong, D.H., Kong, J.Y. and Chae, S.Y., A Study on the Using Realities and Satisfaction of the Wheelchair of the Disabled, The Journal of Special Education: Theory and Practice, 6(3), 229-245, 2005.

MacPhee, Kirby, R.L., Coolen, A.L., Smith, C., MacLeod, D.A. and Dupuis, D.J., Wheelchair skills training program: a randomized clinical trial of wheelchair users undergoing initial rehabilitation, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 85(1), 41-50, 2004. doi: (03)00364-2. crossref(new window)

Masclet, Claude, Set of quick release hubs for wheelchairs for physically handicapped persons with hemiplegic disability, US Patent, 5791672, 1998.

Ministry of Health & Welfare Korea, The decision standard of disability grade, 2012a,, (retrieved May 29, 2013).

Ministry of Health & Welfare Korea, Survey of Disabled Person, 2011,, (retrieved May 29, 2013).

Ministry of Health & Welfare Korea, The business guide of disabled person 2012(first), 2012b,, (retrieved May 29, 2013).

Mountain, A.D., Kirby, R.L., MacLeod, D.A. and Thompson, K., Rates and predictors of manual and powered wheelchair use for persons with stroke: a retrospective study in a Canadian rehabilitation center, Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation, 91(4), 639-643, 2010. crossref(new window)

Nina, Hamlet V., Marrion, Valerie Susan, and DiGiovanni, Dominic Edward, One-arm drive manual wheelchair, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, 2009,, (retrieved May 29, 2013).

Park, J.Y., Jung, H.Y. and Chang, M.Y., A Study on the Satisfaction for Using Mobility Assistive Device in Stroke Patients, Journal of Assistive Technology, 4(2), 85-99, 2010a.

Park, S.Y., Lee, I.H., Jeon, C.B., Lee, Y.S. and Choi, J.H., "Comparison of the sitting pressure of stroke patients according to seat shapes", Proceedings of the Ergonomics Society of Korea Conference, 2010(10), 15-19, 2010b.

Pedretti, Lorraine Williams, Pendleton, Heidi McHugh, and Schultz-Krohn, Winifred, Pedretti's occupational therapy, Mosby/Elsevier, St. Louis, Mo., 2006.

Radomski, M.V. and Latham, C.A. Trombly, Occupational therapy for physical dysfunction - 6th ed., Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2008.

Roley, S.S., DeLany, J.V., Barrows, C.J., et al., Occupational therapy practice framework: domain & practice 2nd edition, The American journal of occupational therapy, 62(6), 625-683, 2008. crossref(new window)

Ryu, J-C., The Convertible Wheelchair System, Journal of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering, 20(2), 14-18, 2003.

Salminen, A.L., Brandt, A., Samuelsson, K., Toytari, O. and Malmivaara, A., Mobility devices to promote activity and participation: a systematic review, J Rehabil Med, 41(9), 697-706, 2009. doi: 10.2340/16501977-0427 crossref(new window)

Seo, J.H., Hang, S.H., Kim, B.S., Kim, J.M. and Kang, M.S., "Load selectable power assisted wheelchair for traveling and regabilitation", Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference, 185-186, 2012.

Shah, S., Vanclay, F. and Cooper, B., Improving the sensitivity of the Barthel Index for stroke rehabilitation. Journal of clinical epidemiology, 42(8), 703-709, 1989. crossref(new window)

Tsai, K-H, Yeh, C-Y. and Lo, Hsin-Chang., A novel design and clinical evaluation of a wheelchair for stroke patients, International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 38(3), 264-271, 2008a. crossref(new window)

Tsai, KuengHorng, Yeh, C.Y., Lo, H.C., Chang, L.T., Lee, J.S. and Lee, C.T., Usability Evaluation of Three Unilateral - Propelled Wheelchairs for Hemiplegic Patients, In A. Katashev, Y. Dekhtyar & J. Spigulis (Eds.), 14th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics (Vol. 20, pp. 172-174): Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2008b.

Wheelchair Skills Program (WSP), Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada, 2008.