JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Comparison of Vertical and Horizontal Eye Movement Times in the Selection of Visual Targets by an Eye Input Device
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Comparison of Vertical and Horizontal Eye Movement Times in the Selection of Visual Targets by an Eye Input Device
Hong, Seung Kweon;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Objective: The aim of this study is to investigate how well eye movement times in visual target selection tasks by an eye input device follows the typical Fitts' Law and to compare vertical and horizontal eye movement times. Background: Typically manual pointing provides excellent fit to the Fitts' Law model. However, when an eye input device is used for the visual target selection tasks, there were some debates on whether the eye movement times in can be described by the Fitts' Law. More empirical studies should be added to resolve these debates. This study is an empirical study for resolving this debate. On the other hand, many researchers reported the direction of movement in typical manual pointing has some effects on the movement times. The other question in this study is whether the direction of eye movement also affects the eye movement times. Method: A cursor movement times in visual target selection tasks by both input devices were collected. The layout of visual targets was set up by two types. Cursor starting position for vertical movement times were in the top of the monitor and visual targets were located in the bottom, while cursor starting positions for horizontal movement times were in the right of the monitor and visual targets were located in the left. Results: Although eye movement time was described by the Fitts' Law, the error rate was high and correlation was relatively low ( for horizontal movements and for vertical movements), compared to those of manual movement. According to the movement direction, manual movement times were not significantly different, but eye movement times were significantly different. Conclusion: Eye movement times in the selection of visual targets by an eye-gaze input device could be described and predicted by the Fitts' Law. Eye movement times were significantly different according to the direction of eye movement. Application: The results of this study might help to understand eye movement times in visual target selection tasks by the eye input devices.
 Keywords
Eye input device;Fitts' Law;Movement direction;Selection task;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Chi, C.F. and Lin, C.L., "Speed and Accuracy of Eye-Gaze Pointing", Perceptual and Motor Skills: 85, 705-718, 1997. crossref(new window)

2.
Fitts, P.M., The information capacity of the human motor system in controlling the amplitude of movement, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47, 381-391, 1954. crossref(new window)

3.
Gan, K-C. and Hoffmann, E.R., Geometrical conditions for ballistic and visually controlled movements, Ergonomics, 31(5), 829-839, 1988. crossref(new window)

4.
Jacob, R.J.K., The Use of Eye Movements in Human-Computer Interaction Techniques: What You Look At is What You Get, ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9(3), 152-169, April 1991. crossref(new window)

5.
MacKenzie, I.S., Fitts' law as a research and design tool in human-computer interaction. Human-Computer Interaction, 7, 91-139, 1992. crossref(new window)

6.
Miniotas, D., Application of Fitts' Law to Eye Gaze Interaction. In Extended Abstracts of ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. The Hague, The Netherlands: ACM Press, 339-340, 2000.

7.
Murata, A. and Iwase, H., Extending Fitts' law to a three-dimensional pointing task, Human Movement Science, 20, 791-805, 2001. crossref(new window)

8.
Vertegaal, R., A Fitts' Law Comparison of Eye Tracking and Manual Input in the Selection of visual Targets". Proceedings of the 10th international conference on Multimodal Interface, Chania, Krete, Greece, 241-248, Oct 20-22, 2008.

9.
Ware, C. and Mikaelian, H.T., "An Evaluation of an Eye Tracker as a Device for Computer Input". Proceedings of the ACM CHI + GI'87 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference. Toronto, Canada: ACM Press, 183-188, 1987.

10.
Zhai, S., Morimoto, C. and Ihde, S., Manual and Gaze Input Cascaded (MAGIC) Pointing. In Proceedings of CHI'99 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Pittsburgh, PA: ACM Press, 246-253, 1999.