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Evasive Behavior of the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, against Chlorine Dioxide and Its Suppression by Heat Treatment
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 Title & Authors
Evasive Behavior of the Red Flour Beetle, Tribolium castaneum, against Chlorine Dioxide and Its Suppression by Heat Treatment
Kim, Yonggyun; Kumar, Sunil; Rahman, M. Mahbubur; Kwon, Hyeok; Chun, Yongsik; Na, Jahyun; Kim, Wook;
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Chlorine dioxide () can be used as a fumigant to kill insects. However, some insects can exhibit an evasive behavior from chlorine dioxide. This evasive behavior decreases the efficiency of the insecticidal activity of chlorine dioxide. This study tested a hypothesis that heat treatment suppresses the evasive behavior and synergizes the control efficacy of chlorine dioxide. Chlorine dioxide fumigation killed the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, under direct exposure condition to the chemical for 12 h with median lethal concentrations of 383.67 ppm (153.63 - 955.78 ppm: 95% confidence interval) for larvae and 397.75 ppm (354.46 - 446.13 ppm: 95% confidence interval) for adults. However, when they were treated with enough diet flour, they exhibited an evasive behavior by entering the diet, which significantly decreased the control efficacy of the fumigant. To clarify the evasive behavior, the choice test of the adults were performed in Y tube arena. The test adults significantly avoided the diet treated with chlorine dioxide, while the antennatectomized adults lost the avoidance behavior. Heat treatment using for 6 h killed only 10% or less of T. castaneum. Interestingly, most adults were observed to come out of the diet under the heat treatment. Chlorine dioxide treatment even at 400 ppm for 6 h did not kill any T. castaneum. However, the combined treatment of chlorine dioxide with the heat treatment for 6 h resulted in 95% mortality. These results indicated that heat treatment suppressed the evasive behavior of T. castaneum and synergized the control efficacy of the chlorine dioxide fumigant.
Chlorine dioxide;Heat treatment;Fumigant;Evasive behavior;Stored grain insect pest;Tribolium castaneum;
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