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Insecticidal Activity of Cinnamon Essential Oils, Constituents, and (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Analogues against Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae) Nymphs and Adults
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 Title & Authors
Insecticidal Activity of Cinnamon Essential Oils, Constituents, and (E)-Cinnamaldehyde Analogues against Metcalfa pruinosa Say (Hemiptera: Flatidae) Nymphs and Adults
Kim, Jun-Ran; Jeong, In-Hong; Lee, Young Su; Lee, Sang-Guei;
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The insecticidal activity of the constituents of cinnamon essential oils and structurally related compounds against both the nymphs and adults of the citrus flatid planthopper Metcalfa pruinosa was examined using a direct-contact application. The toxicity of the cinnamon oil constituents and 21 (E)-cinnamaldehyde related compounds regarding the nymphs of M. pruinosa was evaluated using a leaf-dipping bioassay. Based on 24 h values, hydro-cinnamic acid () is the most toxic compound, followed by geranic acid (). The values of 11 of the compounds including cinnamaldehyde are between and . Low toxicities and no toxicity were observed with the other 15 ( to ) and two compounds, respectively. Also, the toxicities of the cinnamon oil constituents and 21 cinnamaldehyde related compounds regarding the M. pruinosa adults were evaluated using a direct-spray method. The toxicity of eugenol (10.81 mg) is the most toxic compound for the adults of M. pruinosa, followed by geranic acid (30.68 mg). The values of nine of the compounds including cinnamaldehyde are between 59.16 mg and 96.70 mg. Low toxicities and no toxicity were observed with the other 15 (105.44 mg to 255.76 mg) and three compounds, respectively. The spray formulations that comprise cinnamon bark and cinnamon green leaf oils resulted in 82.3% and 82.9% mortalities, respectively, toward the M. pruinosa adults in a ginseng field. Global efforts to reduce the level of highly toxic synthetic insecticides in agricultural environments justify further studies on cinnamon oils to ascertain whether the corresponding active principles can act as insecticides, when they are applied as a direct spray with contact action, for the control of M. pruinosa populations.
Metcalfa pruinosa;Cinnamon essential oils;Cinnamaldehyde;Spray formulation;
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