Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Radioprotective Potential of Panax ginseng: Current Status and Future Prospectives
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Radioprotective Potential of Panax ginseng: Current Status and Future Prospectives
Nam, Ki-Yeul; Park, Jong-Dae; Choi, Jae-Eul;
  PDF(new window)
Pharmacological effects of Panax ginseng have been demonstrated in cardiovascular system, endocrine secretion and immune system, together with antitumor, anti-stress and anti-oxidant activities. Modern scientific data show protective effect of ginseng against bone marrow cell death, increased survival rate of experimental animals, recovery of hematopoietic injury, immunopotentiation, reduction of damaged intestinal epithelial cells, inhibition of mutagenesis and effective protection against testicular damages, caused by radiation exposure. And also, ginseng acts in indirect fashion to protect radical processes by inhibition of initiation of free radical processes and thus reduces the radiation damages. The research has made much progress, but still insufficient to fully uncover the action mechanism of ginseng components on the molecule level. This review provides the usefulness of natural product, showing no toxic effects, as an radioprotective agent. Furthermore, the further clinical trials on radioprotection of ginseng need to be highly done to clarify its scientific application. The effective components of ginseng has been known as ginsenosides. Considering that each of these ginsenosides has pharmacological effect, it seems likely that non-saponin components might have radioprotective effects superior to those of ginsenosides, suggesting its active ingredients to be non-saponin series. These results also show that the combined effects of saponin and non-saponin components play an important role in the radioprotective effects of ginseng.
Panax ginseng;Radioprotective Effects;Ginsenosides;Saponin;Non-saponin;Radiation Damage;
 Cited by
식물생장조절제 처리가 인삼의 장과 및 종자 형성에 미치는 영향,조서리;김정선;이누리;최재을;

한국약용작물학회지, 2012. vol.20. 5, pp.315-319 crossref(new window)
인삼 점무늬병균(Alternaria panax)과 탄저병균(Colletotrichum gloeosporioides)에 대한 길항미생물 Bacillus spp. 선발,이혜진;박기춘;이승호;방경환;박홍우;현동윤;강승원;차선우;정일민;

한국약용작물학회지, 2012. vol.20. 5, pp.339-344 crossref(new window)
인삼에서 Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase 과발현이 진세노사이드 생합성에 미치는 영향,박홍우;김옥태;현동윤;;김장욱;김영창;방경환;차선우;최재을;

한국약용작물학회지, 2013. vol.21. 1, pp.32-38 crossref(new window)
비닐하우스에서 상토의 조성에 따른 묘삼의 생장특성,박홍우;장인배;김영창;모황성;박기춘;유진;김장욱;이응호;김기홍;현동윤;

한국약용작물학회지, 2014. vol.22. 5, pp.363-368 crossref(new window)
Effects of Plant Growth Regulator Treatment on Ginseng berry and seed development in Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer, Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, 2012, 20, 5, 315  crossref(new windwow)
Overexpression of Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase by Introducing CaFPS Gene in Panax ginseng C. A. Mey., Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, 2013, 21, 1, 32  crossref(new windwow)
Screening of Antifungal Bacillus spp. against Alternaria Blight Pathogen (Alternaria panax) and Anthracnose Pathogen (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides) of Ginseng, Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science, 2012, 20, 5, 339  crossref(new windwow)
Adams GE. (1984). Lethality from acute and protracted radiation exposure in man. International Journal of Radiation, Biology and Related Studies in Physics, Chemistry, and Medicine. 46:209-217. crossref(new window)

Akagawa G, Abe S, Tansho S, Uchida K and Yamaguchi H. (1996). Protection of C3H/HE J mice from development of Candida albicans infection by oral administrat -ion of Juzentaiho- to and its component, Ginseng radix: possible roles of macrophages in the host defense mechanisms. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 18:73-89. crossref(new window)

Arora R, Gupta D, Chawla R, Sagar R, Sharma A, Kumar R, PrasadJ, Singh S, Samanta N and Sharma RK. (2005). Radioprotection by plant products: Present status and future prospects. Phytotherapy Research. 19:1-22. crossref(new window)

Attele AS, Wu JA and Yuan CS. (1999). Ginseng pharmacology. Biochemical Pharmacology. 58:1685-1693. crossref(new window)

Bae EA, Han MJ, Kim EJ and Kim DH. (2004). Transformation of ginseng saponins to ginsenoside Rh2 by acids and human intestinal bacteria and biological activities of their transformants. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 27:61-67. crossref(new window)

Baliga MS and Rao S. (2010). Radioprotective potential of mint: a brief review. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics. 6:255-262. crossref(new window)

Brekhman II and Dardymov IV. (1969). New substances of plant origin which increase nonspecific resistance. Annual Review Pharmacology. 9:419-430. crossref(new window)

Catena C, Conti D, Parasacchi P, Mareno P and Bortolato B. (1996). Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes may predict patient response to radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 70:301-308. crossref(new window)

Chang YS, Park CI and Noh HI. (1980). The effect od Panax ginseng on the postoperative radiation complication in cervical cancer patients. In Proceedings of 3rd International Ginseng Symposium. Korea Ginseng Research Institute Press, Seoul, Korea. p. 197-205.

Chen D, Wang SL and Wang YP. (2003). Experimental study on expression of GM-CSF from human endothelial cells and monocytes induced by total saponins of Panax ginseng. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 23:845-847.

Choi JE, Nam KY, Li XG, Kim BY, Cho HS and Hwang KB. (2010). Changes of chemical compositions and Ginsenoside contents of different root parts of Ginsengs with processing method. Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science. 18:118-125.

Coon JT and Ernst E. (2002). Panax ginseng: a systematic review of adverse effects and drug interactions. Drug Safety. 25:323-344. crossref(new window)

Fenech M, Denham J and Francis W. (1990). Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of cancer patients following fractionated partial-body radiotherapy. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 57:373-384. crossref(new window)

Fenech M and Morley AA. (1985). Measurement of micronuclei in lymphocytes. Mutation Research. 147:29-36. crossref(new window)

Finch SC. (1987). Acute radiation syndrome. Journal of American Medical Association. 258:664-667. crossref(new window)

Fu Y and Ji LL. (2003). Chronic ginseng consumption attenuates age-associated oxidative stress in rats. Journal of Nutrition. 133:3603-3609.

Gale RP and Butturini A. (1990). The role of hematopoietic growth factors in nuclear and radiation accidents. Experimental Hematology. 18:958-964.

Han SK, Song JY, Yun YS and Yi S. (2005a). Ginsan improved Th1 immune response inhibited by gamma radiation. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 28:343-350. crossref(new window)

Han YS, Son SJ, Akhalaia M, Platonov A, Son HJ, Lee KH, Yun YS and Song JY. (2005b). Modulation of radiationinduced disturbances of antioxidant defense systems by ginsan. Evidence-Based Complementary Alternative Medicine. 2:529-536. crossref(new window)

Hasegawa H. (2004). Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: Basic and clinical trials: Metabolic activation of ginsenoside: Deglycosylation by intestinal bacteria and esterification with fatty acid. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 95:153-157. crossref(new window)

Hasegawa H, Suzuki R, Nagaoka T, Tezuka Y, Kadota S and Saiki I. (2002). Prevention of growth and metastasis of murine melanoma through enhanced of murine melanoma through enhanced natural-killer cytotoxicity by fatty acid-conjugate of protopanaxa-triol. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 25:861-866. crossref(new window)

He JL, Jin HY, Jin IF and Gao SY. (2000). Monitoring of human exposure to radiation with the binucleated lymphocyte micronucleus assay. Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. 13:32-36.

Hisha H, Yamada H, Masumi H. Sakurai MH, Kiyohara H, Li Y, Yu C, Takemoto N, Kawamura H, Yamaura K, Shinohara S, Komatsu Y, Aburada M and Ikehara S. (1997). Isolation and identification of hematopoietic stem cellstimulating substances from Kampo (Japanese Herbal) medicine, Juzen-Taiho-To. Blood. 90:1022-1030.

Hosseinimehr SJ, Zakaryaee V and Froughizadeh M. (2006). Oral oxymetholone reduces mortality induced by gamma irradiation in mice through stimulation of hematopoietic cells. Molecular Cellular Biochemistry. 287:193-199. crossref(new window)

Hosseinimehr SJ. (2007). Trends in the development of radioprotective agents. Drug Discovery Today. 12:794-805. crossref(new window)

Ivanova T, Han YS, Son HJ, Yun YS and Song JY. (2006). Antimutagenic effect of polysaccharide ginsan extracted from Panax ginseng. Food Chemical Toxicology. 44:517-521. crossref(new window)

Jagetia GC. (2007). Radioprotective potential of plants and herbs against the effect of ionizing radiation. Journal of Clinical Biochemical Nutrition. 40:74-81. crossref(new window)

Jeong JS, Ryu BH, Kim JS, Park JW, Choi WC and Yoon SW. (2010). Bojungikki-tang for cancer-related fatigue: A pilot randomized clinical trial. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 9:331-338. crossref(new window)

Jia L and Zhao Y. (2009a). Current evaluation of the Millennium Phytomedicine- Ginseng (I): Etymology, Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry, Market and Regulations, Current Medicinal Chemistry. 16:2475-2484. crossref(new window)

Jia L, Zhao Y and Liang XJ. (2009b). Current evaluation of the millennium phytomedicine-ginseng (II): Collected chemical entities, modern pharmacology, and clinical applications emanated from traditional Chinese medicine. Current Medicinal Chemistry. 16:2924-2942. crossref(new window)

Jo JE, Kim KH, Kim MS, Choi JE, Byun MW and Yook HS. (2011). Antioxidant activity from different root parts of 6-yearold Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Yun-poong). Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 40:493-499. crossref(new window)

Kaneko H and Nakanishi K. (2004). Proof of the mysterious efficacy of ginseng: basic and clinical trials: clinical effects of medical ginseng, Korean red ginseng: specifically, its anti-stress action for prevention of disease. Journal of Pharmacological Sciences. 95:158-162. crossref(new window)

Kang KA, Kang JH and Yang MP. (2008). Ginseng total saponin enhances the phagocytic capacity of canine peripheral blood phagocytes in vitro. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 36:329-341. crossref(new window)

Kang KS, Kim HY, Baek SH, Yoo HH, Park JH and Yokozawa T. (2007). Study on the hydroxyl radical scavenging activity changes of ginseng and ginsenoside-$Rb_{2}$ by heat processing. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bullutin. 30:724-728. crossref(new window)

Karbownik M and Reiter RJ. (2000). Antioxidative effects of melatonin in protection against cellular damage caused by ionizing radiation. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 225:9-22. crossref(new window)

Keum YS, Park KK, Lee JM, Chun KS, Park JH, Lee SK, Kwon H and Surh YJ. (2000). Antioxidant and anti-tumor promoting activities of the methanol extract of heat-processed ginseng. Cancer Letters. 150:41-48. crossref(new window)

Kim CM. (1990). Mechanism of the radioprotective activity of ginseng protein fraction. Proceedings of International Symposium on Korean Ginseng. The Society for Korean Ginseng:20-21.

Kim CM and Choi MK. (1992). Radioprotective effects of ginseng protein. Yakhak Hoeji. 36:449-454.

Kim CM and Han GS. (1985). DNA repair enhancement by radioprotective ginseng protein. Yakhak Hoeji. 29:246-252.

Kim CM and Park SY. (1988). Effects of ginseng protein on relative survival and chromosome aberration of UV irradiated cells. Archives of Pharmacal Research. 11:225-220. crossref(new window)

Kim DJ and Chang CC. (1994). The effects of Red ginseng extracts on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation of kindney in Y-postirradiated mice. Korea Journal of Ginseng Sciences. 18:25-31.

Kim DS, Park E, Song JY, Park CM, Son HY, Hwang KK and Jee YH. (2008). Protective effects of an acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng on hematopoietic and immune systems of gamma-rays-irradiated mice. Laboratory Animal Research. 24:173-178.

Kim DY and Chang JC. (1998a). Radioprotective effect of ginseng components on antioxidant enzymes, glutathione and lipid peroxidation of liver in $\gamma$-irradiated mice. Korea Journal of Ginseng Sciences. 22:1-10.

Kim HJ, Kim MH, Buon YY, Park JW, Jee YH and Joo HG. (2007). Radioprotective effects of an acidic polysaccharide of Panax ginseng on bone marrow cells. Journal of Veterinary Science. 8:39-44. crossref(new window)

Kim JY, Germolec DR and Luster MI. (1990). Panax ginseng as a potential immuno- modulator: studies in mice. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 12:257-276. crossref(new window)

Kim JY, Lee HJ, Kim JS and Ryu JH. (2005). Induction of nitric oxide synthase by saponins of heat-processed ginseng. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry. 69:891-895. crossref(new window)

Kim KH, Lee YS, Jung IS, Park SY, Chung HY, Lee IR and Yun YS. (1998b). Acidic polysaccharide from Panax ginseng, ginsan, induces Th1 cell and macrophage cytokines and generates LAK cells in synergy with rIL-2. Planta Medica. 64:110-115. crossref(new window)

Kim MH, Yun-Young Byon, Eun-Ju Ko, Jie-Young Song, Yeon- Sook Yun, Taekyun Shin and Joo HG. (2009). Immunomodulatory activity of ginsan, a polysaccharide of Panax ginseng, on dendritic cells. Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology. 13:169-173. crossref(new window)

Kim SH, Cho CK, Yoo SY, Koh KH, Yun HG and Kim TH. (1993). In vivo radioprotective activity of Panax ginseng and diethyldithiocarbamate. In Vivo. 7:467-470.

Kim SH, Jeong KS, Ryu SY and Kim TH. (1998c). Panax ginseng prevents apoptosis in hair follicles and accelerates recovery of hair medullary cells in irradiated mice. In Vivo. 12:219-222.

Kim SH, Lee HL, Kim SR, Lee JH, JO SK, Nah SY, Son CS and Shin DH. (2001). Effect of red ginseng, white ginseng and diethyldithiocarbamate in irradiated mice. Journal of Ginseng Research. 25:68-73.

Kim SH, Lee SE, Oh H, Kim SR, Yee ST, Yu YB, Byun MW and Jo SK. (2002a). The radioprotective effects of bu-zhongyiqi- tang: A prescription of traditional Chinese medicine. American Journal of Chinese Medicine. 30:127-137. crossref(new window)

Kim YK, Guo Q and Packer L. (2002b) Free radical scavenging activity of red aqueous extracts. Toxicology. 172:149-156. crossref(new window)

Kinnamon KE, Ketterling LL, Stampfli HF and Grenan MM. (1980). Mouse endogenous spleen counts as a means of screening for antiradiation drug. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. :370-373.

Kitts DD and Hu C. (2000a). Efficacy and safety of ginseng. Public Health Nutrition. 4:473-485.

Kitts DD, Wijewickreme A N and Hu C. (2000b). Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract. Molecular Cellular Biochemistry. 203:1-10. crossref(new window)

Kumar M, Sharma MK, Saxena PS and Kumar A. (2003). Radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng on the phosphatases and lipid peroxidation level in testes of Swiss albino mice. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bullutin. 26:308-312. crossref(new window)

Larsen MW, Moser C, Hoiby N, Song Z and Kharazmi A. (2004). Ginseng modulates the immune response by induction of interleukin-12 production. Acta Pathologica Microbiologica et Immunologica Scandinavia. 112:369-373. crossref(new window)

Lee HJ, Kim JS, Song MS, Seo HS, Moon C, Kim JC, Jo SK, Jang JS and Kim SH. (2009a). Photoprotective effect of red ginseng against ultraviolet radiation- induced chronic skin damage in the hairless mouse. Phytotherapy Research. 23:399-403. crossref(new window)

Lee HJ, Kim SR, Kim JC, Kang CM, Lee YS, Jo SK, Kim TH, Jang JS, Nah SY and Kim SH. (2006). In vivo radioprotective effect of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer and identification of active ginsenosides. Phytotherapy Research. 20:392-395. crossref(new window)

Lee J, Lee E, Kim D, Lee J, Yoo J and Koh B. (2009b). Studies on absorption, distribution and metabolism of ginseng in humans after oral administration. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 122:143-148. crossref(new window)

Lee JY, Nam KY and Kim SG. (1984). Introduction to Korean Ginseng. Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute Press, Seoul, Korea. p. 22-23.

Lee SH, Seo GS, Ko G, Kim JB and Sohn DH. (2005a). Antiinflammatory activity of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol: enhanced heme oxygenase 1 expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Planta Medica. 71:1167-1170. crossref(new window)

Lee TK, Johnke RM, Allison RR, O''Brien KF and Dobbs LJ Jr. (2005b). Radioprotective potential of ginseng. Mutagenesis. 20:237-243. crossref(new window)

Lee TK, O'Brien KF, Wang W, Johnke RM, Sheng C, Benhabib SM, Wang T and Allison RR. (2010). Radioprotective effect of American ginseng on human lymphocytes at 90 minutes postirradiation: a study of 40 cases. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 16:561-567. crossref(new window)

Lee TK, Allison RR, O'Brien KF, Khazanie PG, Johnke RM, Brown R, Bloch RM, Tate ML, Dobbs LJ and Kragel PJ. (2004). Ginseng reduces the micronuclei yield in lymphocytes after irradiation. Mutatation Research. 557:75-84. crossref(new window)

Lee TK, Wang W, O'Brien KF, Johnke RM, Wang T, Allison RR and Diaz AL. (2008). Effect of North American ginseng on 137Cs-induced micronuclei in human lymphocytes: a comparison with WR-1065. Phytotherapy Research. 22:1614-1622. crossref(new window)

Li XG, Kang SJ, Han JS, Kim JS and Choi JE. (2010). Comparison of growth Increment and ginsenoside content in different parts of ginseng cultivated by direct seeding and transplanting. Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science. 18:118-125

Liou CJ, Huang WC and Tseng J. (2006). Short-term oral administration of ginseng extract induces type-1 cytokine production. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology. 28:227-240. crossref(new window)

Matsuda H, Yamazaki M, Asanuma Y and Kubo M. (2003). Promotion of hair growth by ginseng radix on cultured mouse vibrissal hair follicles. Phytotherapy Research. 17:797-800. crossref(new window)

McBride WH, Chiang CS, Olson JL, Wang CC, Hong JH and Pajonk F. (2004). A sense of danger from radiation. Radiation Research. 162:1-9. crossref(new window)

Moller P and Loft S. (2004). Interventions with antioxidants and nutrients in relation to oxidative DNA damage and repair. Radiation Research. 551:79-89

Moulder JE. (2004). Post-irradiation approaches to treatment of radiation injuries in the context of radiological terrorism and radiation accidents:a review. International Journal of Radiation Biology. 80:3-10. crossref(new window)

Nair CKK, Parida DK and Nomura T. (2001). Radioprotectors in radiotherapy. Journal of Radiation Research. 42:21-37. crossref(new window)

Nam KY. (1996). Recent trend In Korean Ginseng(Component and Efficacy). Chonil Press, Daejeon, Korea. p.4-79.

Nam KY. (2002). Clinical applications and efficacy of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Journal of Ginseng Research. 26:111-131. crossref(new window)

Ohnishi Y, Yasumizu R, Fan H, Liu J, Takao-Liu F, Komatsu Y, Hosoya E, Good RA and Ikehara S. (1990). Juzen-Taiho- To, a traditional oriental medicine, on hematopoietic recovery frm radiation injury in mice, Experimental Hematology. 118:18-22.

Pande S, Kumar M and Kumar A. (1998). Evaluation of radiomodifying effects of root extract of Panax ginseng. Phytotherapy Research. 12:13-17. crossref(new window)

Park H, Lee MK and Cho BG. (1988). Shape and Compound Relationship in ginseng quality. In Proceeding of 5th International Ginseng Symposium. Korea Ginseng & Tobacco Research Institute Press, Seoul, Korea. p. 133-138.

Park UJ, Hwang IS, Song JY and Jee Yh. (2011). Acidic polysaccharideof Panax ginseng as a defense against small intestinal damage by whole-body gamma irradiation of mice. Acta Histochemica. 113:19-23. crossref(new window)

Pecaut M.J, Nelson, G.A and Gridley, DS (2001). Dose and dose rate effects of whole-body gamma-irradiation: I. Lymphocytes and lymphoid organs. In Vivo. 15:195-208.

Prasad KN. (1995). Handbook of Radiobiology, CRC Press. (floorida, USA).

Qi F, Li A, Inagaki Y, Gao J, Li J, Kokudo N, Li XK and Tang W. (2010). Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer. Bioscience Trends. 4:297-307.

Rades D, Fehlauer F, Bajrovic A, Mahlmann B, Richter E and Alberti W. (2004). Serious adverse effects of amifostine during radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 70:261-264. crossref(new window)

Rivera E, Ekholm Pettersson F, Inganas M, Paulie S and Gronvik KO. (2005). The $Rb_{1}$ fraction of ginseng elicits a balanced Th1 and Th2 immune response. Vaccine. 23:5411-5419. crossref(new window)

Santini V and Giles FJ. (1999). The potential of amifostine: from cytoprotectant to therapeutic agent. Haematologica. 84:1035-1042.

Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M and Cogo R. (1996). Efficacy and safety of the standardised Ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against the influenza syndrome and protection against the common cold. Drugs under Experimental and Clinical Research. 22:65-72.

Shim JY, Han Y, Ahn JY, Yun YS and Song JY. (2007). Chemoprotective and adjuvant effects of immunomodulator ginsan in cyclophosphamide-treated normal and tumor bearing mice. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology. 20:487-497.

Sin JS, Park JH, Kim SH, Kim HJ and Kim YC. (2007). Effects of sun ginseng on the crypt cell survival in mice irradiated with high-energy X-ray. Journal of Environmental Toxicoogy. 21:73-82.

Somosy Z, Horvath G, Telbisz A, Rez G and Palfia Z. (2002). Morphological aspects of ionizing radiation response of small intestine. Micron. 33:167-78. crossref(new window)

Song JY, Han SK, Bae KG, Lim DS, Son SJ, Jung IS, Yi SY and Yun YS. (2003). Radioprotective effects of ginsan, an immunomodulator. Radiation Research. 159:768-774. crossref(new window)

Takeda A, Katoh N and Yonezawa M. (1982). Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng. III. Radioprotective effect of thermostable fraction ginseng extract on mice, rats and guinea pigs. Journal of Radiation Research. 23:150-167. crossref(new window)

Takeda A, Ynezawa M and Katoh N.(1981). Restoration of radiation injury by ginseng. I. Responses of X-irradiated mice to ginseng extract. Journal of Radiation Research. 22:323-335. crossref(new window)

Takeda A. (1983). Rescure of radiation injury by ginseng extract. The Ginseng Review 1:17-26.

Takei M, Tachikawa E, Hasegawa H and Lee JJ. (2004). Dendritic cells maturation promoted by M1 and M4, end products of steroidal ginseng saponins metabolized in digestive tracts, drive a potent Th1 polarization. Biochemical Pharmacology. 68:441-452. crossref(new window)

Tamura T, Cui X, Sakaguchi N and Akashi M. (2008). Ginsenoside Rd prevents and rescues rat intestinal epithelial cells from irradiation-induced apoptosis. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 46:3080-3089. crossref(new window)

Tanaka T. (1989). Protective effects of ginseng against radiationinduced damages. In Kumakai et al., (ed.) Medicinal Ginseng '89. Kyoritz Publishing Co. Press. Tokyo, Japan. p. 207-218.

Verma P, Sharma P, Parmar J, Sharma P, Agrawal A and Goyal PK. (2010). Amelioration of radiation-induced hematological and biochemical alterations in Swiss albino mice by Panax ginseng extract. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 10:77-84.

Wang BJ. (1991). The research on radioprotective agents in chinese matteria medica. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz. Rio De Janeio. 86:165-167. crossref(new window)