3-D Kinematics Comparative Analysis of Penalty Kick between Novice and Expert Soccer Players Shin, Je-Min;
The purpose of this study was to compare kinematic data between experts and novices, and identify difference kinematic parameters changing direction to kick in penalty kick of soccer play. Novice subjects were 5 high school students Who has never been experienced a soccer player, and expert subjects were 5 competitive high school soccer players. The 3-d angle was calculated by Euler's Angle by inertial axis and local axis with three-dimensional cinematography. Kinematic parameters in this study consisted of angles of knee joints, hip joints, lower trunk and upper trunk when the support foot was contacted on ground and kicking foot impacted the ball. The difference of angle of knee joints in the flexion/extension was insignificantly showed below in groups and directions of ball at the time of support and impact. But the difference of angle of hip joint was significant in groups and directions of ball at the time of support and impact. Specially the right hip joint of experts were more flexed about ( at left side, at right side), less abducted about ( at left side, at right side) at impact when they kicked a ball to the left side of goalpost. The difference of amplitude angle in the trunk was significantly shown at upper trunk not lower trunk. The upper trunk was external rotated about (novice' angle was , expert's angle was ) at impact. Therefore the significant difference of kinematic characteristics could be found at the right hip joint and the upper trunk at penalty kick depending on the direction of kicking.