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Biomechanical Analysisz of Varying Backpack Loads on the Lower Limb Moving during Downhill Walking
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 Title & Authors
Biomechanical Analysisz of Varying Backpack Loads on the Lower Limb Moving during Downhill Walking
Chae, Woen-Sik; Lee, Haeng-Seob; Jung, Jae-Hu; Kim, Dong-Soo;
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Objective : The purpose of this study was to conduct biomechanical analysis of varying backpack loads on the lower limb movements during downhill walking over ramp. Method : Thirteen male university students (age: , height: , weight: ) who have no musculoskeletal disorder were recruited as the subjects. Each subject walked over ramp with four different backpack weights (0%, 10%, 20% and 30% of body weight) in random order at a speed of . Five digital camcorders and two force plates were used to obtain 3-d data and kinetics of the lower extremity. For each trial being analyzed, five critical instants were identified from the video recordings. Ground reaction force, loading rate, decay rate, and resultant joint moment of the ankle and the knee were determined by the inverse dynamics analysis. For each dependent variable, one-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to determine whether there were significant differences among four different backpack weight conditions (p<.05). When a significant difference was found, post hoc analyses were performed using the contrast procedure. Results : The results of this study showed that the medio-lateral GRFs at RHC in 20% and 30% body weight were significantly greater than the corresponding value in 0% of body weight. A consistent increase in the vertical GRFs as backpack loads increased was observed. The valgus joint movement of the knee at RTO in 30% body weight was significantly greater than the corresponding values in 0% and 10% body weight. The increased valgus moment of 30% body weight observed in this phase was associated with decelerating and stabilizing effects on the knee joint. The results also showed that the extension and valgus joint moments of the knee were systematically affected by the backpack load during downhill walking. Conclusion : Since downhill walking while carrying heavy external loads in a backpack may lead to excessive knee joint moment, damage can occur to the joint structures such as joint capsule and ligaments. Therefore, excessive repetitions of downhill walking should be avoided if the lower extremity is subjected to abnormally high levels of load over an extended period of time.
Downhill Walking;Varying Backpack Loads;Joint Kinetics;Loading Rate;Decay Rate;Ground Reaction Forces;Resultant Joint Moment;
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