Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Effects of the Stirrup Length Fitted to the Rider's Lower Limb Length on the Riding Posture for Less Skilled Riders during Trot in Equestrian
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Effects of the Stirrup Length Fitted to the Rider's Lower Limb Length on the Riding Posture for Less Skilled Riders during Trot in Equestrian
Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong;
  PDF(new window)
Objective : The purposes of this study was to analyze the effects of the stirrup length fitted to the rider's lower limb length and it's impact on less skilled riders during trot in equestrian events. Methods : Participants selected as subjects consisted of less skilled riders(n=5, mean age: , mean heights: , mean body weights: , lower limb lengths: , mean horse heights: with 2 type of stirrups lengths(lower limb ratio 74.04%, and 79.18%) during trot. The variables analyzed consisted of the displacement for Y axis and Z axis(head, and center of mass[COM]) with asymmetric index, trunk front-rear angle(consistency index), lower limb joint(Right hip, knee, and ankle), and average vertical forces of horse rider during 1 stride in trot. The 4 camcorder(HDR-HC7/HDV 1080i, Spony Corp, Japan) was used to capture horse riding motion at a rate of 60 frames/sec. Raw data was collected from Kwon3D XP motion analysis package ver 4.0 program(Visol, Korea) during trot. Results : The movements and asymmetric index didn't show significant difference at head and COM, Also, 74.04% stirrups lengths in trunk tilting angle showed significant difference with higher consistency than that of 79.18% stirrups lengths. Hip and knee joint angle showed significant difference with more extended posture than that of 74.04% stirrups lengths during trot. Ankle angle of 79.18% stirrups length showed more plantarflexion than that of 74.04% stirrups lengths. Average vertical force of rider showed significant difference with higher force at 79.18% stirrups lengths than that of 74.04% stirrups lengths during stance phase. Conclusion : When considering the above, 74.04% stirrups length could be effective in impulse reduction with consistent posture in rather less skilled horse riders.
Equestrian;Less skilled rider;Stirrups lengths;Average vertical force;lower limb ratio 74.04%;
 Cited by
Motor ability of forelimb both on- and off-riding during walk and trot cadence of horse, Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 2016, 12, 1, 60  crossref(new windwow)
Abdel-Aziz, Y. I., & Karara, H. M. (1971). Direct Liner Transformation from Comparator into Object Space Coordinates Inclose-Range Photogrammetry. Proceeding of the Symposium on close-range Photogrammetry(1-18). Falls church, VA: American society of photogrammetry.

Abu-Zidan, F. M., & Rao, S. (2003). Factors affection the severity of horse-related injuries. Injury, 34(12), 897-900. crossref(new window)

Ball, C. G., Ball, J. E., Kirkpatrick, A. W., & Mulloy, R. H. (2007). Equestrian injuries: incidence, injury patterns, and risk factors for 10 years of major traumatic injuries. The American Journal of Surgery, 193(5), 636-640. crossref(new window)

Barber, H. M. (1973). Horse-Play: Survey of accidents with horses. British Medical Journal, 8(3), 532-534.

Barr, A. R., Dow, S. M., & Goodship, A. E. (1995). Parameters of forelimb ground reaction force in 48 normal ponies. The Veterinary Record, 136(2), 283-286. crossref(new window)

Bertoti, D. B. (1988). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on posture in children with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 68(100), 1505-1512.

Bixby-Hammett, D. M., & William, H. B. (1989). Neurologic injuries in equestrian sports. Sports Neurology, 229-234.

Buckley, S. M., Chalmers, D. J., & Langley, J. D. (1993). Injuries due to falls from horses. Australian Journal of Public Health, 17(3), 269-271.

Chung, C. S., & Shin, I, S. (2005). Introduction to sports biomechanics. Seoul: Daehanmedia.

Clayton, H. M. (2002). Walk this way: Learn to discern the fine points of this all important basic gait. Veterinary Connection, 39-42.

Edixhoven, P., Sinha, S. C., & Dandy, D. J. (1981). Horse injuries. Injury, 12(4), 279-282. crossref(new window)

Goodwin, D., McGreevy, P., N., & McLean, A. (2009). How equitation science can elucidate and refine horsemanship techniques. The Veterinary Journal, 181(1), 5-11. crossref(new window)

Greve, L., & Dyson, S. (2013). The horse-saddle-rider interaction. The Veterinary Journal, 195(3), 275-281. crossref(new window)

Grossman, J. A., Kulund, D. N., Miller, C. W., Winn, H. R., & Hodge, R. H. (1978). Equestrian injuries: results of a prospective study. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 240(17), 1881-1882. crossref(new window)

Hyun, S. H., & Ryew, C. C. (2015a). Analysis of the angular kinematics variables for riding posture during walk and tort in horse riding: consistency and asymmetric indices. Kinesiology, 17(1), 17-27.

Hyun, S. H., & Ryew, C. C. (2015b). Analysis of the coordination of the trunk tilting angle and bilateral lower limbs according to the stirrups length during trot in equestrian: asymmetric index development of overall movement index algorithm. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 25(1), 131-140. crossref(new window)

Ingemarson, H., Grevsten, S., & Thorean, L. (1989). Lethal horse-riding injuries. Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 21(9), 25-30.

Jagodzinski, T., & DeMuri, G. P. (2005). Horse-related injuries in children: a review. Wisconsin Medical Journal, 104(2), 50-54.

Lagarde, J., Peham, C., Kicka, T., & Kelso, J. A. S. (2005). Coordination dynamics of the horse-rider system. Journal of Motor Behavior, 37(6), 418-424. crossref(new window)

Loder, R. T. (2008). The demographics of equestrian-related injuries in the united states: injury patterns, orthopedic specific injuries, and avenues for injury prevention. Journal of Trauma-injury infection & Critical Care, 65(2), 447-460. crossref(new window)

Lovett, T., Hodson-Tole, E., & Nankervis, K. (2005). A preliminary investigation of rider position during walk, tort and canter. Equine and Comparative Exercise Physiology, 2(2), 71-76. crossref(new window)

Macnab, A. J., & Cadman, R. (1996). Demographics of alpine skiing and snowboarding injury: lessons for prevention programs. Injury Prevention, 2(4), 286-289. crossref(new window)

Mayberry, J. C., Pearson, T. E., Wiger, K. J., Diggs, B. S., & Mullins, R. J. (2007). Equestrian injury prevention efforts need more attention to novice riders. Journal of Trauma-injury infection & Critical Care, 62(3), 735-739. crossref(new window)

McGee, M. C., & Reese, N. B. (2009). Immediate effects of a hippotherapy session on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(2), 212-218. crossref(new window)

McLaughlin, R. M., Gaughan, E. M., Roush, J. K., & Skaggs, C. L. (1996). Effects of subject velocity on ground reaction force measurements and stance times in clinically normal horses at the walk and trot. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 57(1), 7-11.

Meyners, E. (2004). Effective Teaching and Riding: Exploring Balance and Motion. Goals Unlimited Press, Montana, USA.

Norwood, D., McAuley, C., Vallina, V. L., Fernandez, L. G., McLarty, J. W., & Goodfried, G. (2000). Mechanisms and patterns of injuries related to large animals. The Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery, 48(4), 740-744. crossref(new window)

Paix, B. R. (1999). Rider injury rates and emergency medical services at equestrian events. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 33(1), 46-48. crossref(new window)

Plagenhoef, S. C., Evans, F. G., & Abdelnour, T. (1983). Anatomical data for analyzing human motion. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 54(2), 169-178. crossref(new window)

Pounder, D. J. (1984). The grave yawns for the horseman: Equestrian deaths in South Australia 1973-1983. The Medical Journal of Australia, 141(10), 632-635.

Robinson, R. O., Herzog, W., & Nigg, B. M. (1987). Use of force platform variables to quantify the effects of chiropractic manipulation on gait symmetry. Journal of Manipulative Physiology Therapy, 10(4), 172-176.

Ryew, C. C. (2012). Kinematic analysis on the stabilization & correction effects of riding posture according to rider's skill levels in horse back riding. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 22(1), 83-94. crossref(new window)

Ryew, C. C., & Hyun, S. H. (2014). Kinematic analysis of the rider postural alignments according to the fitting of stirrups lengths during horse walk of high level rider. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 24(4), 329-338. crossref(new window)

Silver, J. R. (2002). Spinal injuries resulting from horse riding accidents. Spinal Cord, 40(6), 264-271. crossref(new window)

Sorli, J. M. (2000). Equestrian injuries: a five year review of hospital admissions in British Columbia, Canada. Injury Prevention, 6(1), 59-61. crossref(new window)

Srinivasan, V., Pierre, C., Plog, B., Srinivasan, K., Petraglia, A. L., & Huang, J. H. (2014). Straight from the horse's mouth: neurological injury in equestrian sports. Neurological Research, 36(10), 873-877. crossref(new window)

Winter, D. A. (1983). Moment of force and mechanical power in jogging. Journal of Biomechanics, 16(1), 91-97. crossref(new window)

Wolframm, I. A., Bosga, J., & Meulenbroek, R. G. J. (2013). Coordination dynamics in horse-rider dyads. Human Movement Science, 32(1), 157-170. crossref(new window)