Advanced SearchSearch Tips
A Locomotive Analysis on Forelimbs` Movement According to Change in Velocity of Horses` Quadruped Cadence
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
A Locomotive Analysis on Forelimbs` Movement According to Change in Velocity of Horses` Quadruped Cadence
Hyun, Seung-Hyun; Ryew, Che-Cheong;
  PDF(new window)
Objective : The purposes of this study was to analyze the locomotive movement of forelimbs according to changes in velocities in the quadruped cadence of horses. Methods : Horses selected as subjects consisted of Jeju pony horses (heights of withers: ). Two camcorders (HDR-HC7/HDV 1080i, Sony Corp, Japan) were used to capture the movement of the horses` forelimbs at a rate of 60 frames/sec. Additionally, raw data was collected from Kwon3D XP motion analysis package ver 4.0 program (Visol, Korea) with DARTFISH (DFKREA., Korea) video software solution. The variables analyzed consisted of 1 step lengths, 1 stride lengths, stance time, swing time, 1 stride time, velocity while walking, and trot of the horses. A two-way ANOVA and paired t-test of the variables by velocity and phase were treated at .05 level of significant difference, statistically. Results : The time elapsed of walk(stance: 0.63 sec[63.86%], swing: 0.35 sec[36.14%], 1 stride time: 0.99 sec respectively) showed significant difference with more delay than that of trot(stance: 0.29 sec[45.73%], swing: 0.34 sec[54.27% ], 1 stride time: 0.63 sec respectively), and also showed significant difference at trot in interaction (stance time>tort swing>walk swing>walk stance). The 1 step lengths and stride lengths in trot showed significant difference with longer than that of walk. Velocity of Trot showed significant difference statistically with higher than that of walk Conclusion : The horses` velocity during 1 step lengths and 1 stride lengths showed a proportional relationship, but the correlation between the horses` velocity and stance time showed a negative relationship during the quadruped cadence.
Jeju pony horses;Cadence;Forelimb;Locomotion;Quadruped;
 Cited by
Arnason, T. H. (1982). Prediction of breeding values for multiple traits in small non-random mating(horse) populations. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 32(12), 171-176. crossref(new window)

Back, W., Schamhardt, H. C., & Barneveld, A. (1996). Are kinematics of the walk related to the locomotion of a warmblood horse at the trot. Veterinary Quarterly, 18(2), 79-84. crossref(new window)

Barrey, E. (1999). Methods, applications and limitation of gait analysis in horses. The Veterinary Journal, 157(1), 7-22. crossref(new window)

Bartel, D. L., Schryver, H. F., Lowe, J. E., & Parker, R. A. (1978). Locomotion in the horse: a procedure for computing the internal forces in the digit. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 39(11), 1721.

Bertoti, D. B. (1988). Effect of therapeutic horseback riding on posture in children with cerebral palsy. Physical Therapy, 68(100), 1505-1512.

Belhuyahia, T., Blouin, C., Langlois, B., & Harzalla, H. (2003). Breeding evaluation of arab horses from their racing results in tunisia by a BLUP with an animal model. Animal Research, 52, 481-488. crossref(new window)

Bugislaus, A. E., Roehe, R., Uphaus, H., & Kalam, E. (2004). Development of genetic models for estimation of racing performances in German thoroughbreds. Archiv Fur Tierzucht, 47(6), 505-516.

Clayton, H. M. (1996). Comparison of the stride kinematics of the collected, medium, and extended walks in horses. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 56(7), 849-852.

Drillis, R. J. (1961). The Influence of Aging on The Kinematics of Gait. The Geriatric Amputee. National Academy of Science, National Research Council, Washington, DC, Publication, 919.

Finley, F. R., & Cody, K. A. (1970). Locomotive characteristics of urban pedestrians. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 51(7), 423.

Gillespie, R. H. (1971). A now way to evaluate race horses, performance rates. Thoroughbred Rec, 7, 961-977.

Hodson, E., Clayton, H. M., & Lanovaz, J. L. (2000). The forelimb in walking horses: kinematics and ground reaction forces. Equine Veterinary Journal, 32(4), 287-294. crossref(new window)

Hodson, E., Clayton, H. M., & Lanovaz, J. L. (2001). The hindlimb in walking horses: kinematics and ground reaction forces. Equine Veterinary Journal, 33(1), 38-43.

Hyun, S. H., & Ryew, C. C. (2015). Analysis of the coordination of the trunk tilting angle and bilateral lower limbs according to the stirrups length during tort in equestrian: asymmetric index development of overall movement index algorithm. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 25(1), 131-140. crossref(new window)

Jeffcott, L. B. (1979). Back problems in the horse-A look at past, present and future progress. Equine Veterinary Journal, 11(3), 129-136. crossref(new window)

Langlois, B., & Bluin, C. (2007). Annual, career or single race records for breeding value estimation in race horse. Livest Science, 107, 132-141. crossref(new window)

McGee, M. C., & Reese, N. B. (2009). Immediate effects of a hippotherapy session on gait parameters in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Pediatric Physical Therapy, 21(2), 212-218. crossref(new window)

McLaughlin, R. M., Gaughan, E. M., Roush, J. K., & Skaggs, C. L. (1996). Effects of subject velocity on ground reaction force measurements and stance times in clinically normal horses at the walk and trot. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 57(1), 7-11.

Merkens, H. W., Schamhardt, H. C. (1988). Evaluation of equine locomotion during different degrees of experimentally induced lameness II: distribution of ground reaction force patterns of the concurrently loaded limbs. Equine Veterinary Journal, 20(s6), 107-112.

Mota, M. D. S., Abrahao, A. R., & Oliveira, H. N. (2005). Genetic and environmental parameters for racing time at different distances in Brazilian thoroughbreds. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 122(6), 393-399. crossref(new window)

Nicodemus, M. C., & Clayton, H. C. (2003). Temporal variables of 4-beat, stepping gaits of gaited horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 80(2), 133-142. crossref(new window)

Oki, H., Sasaki, Y., & Willham, R. L. (1997). Estimation of genetic correlations between racing times recorded at different racing distance by restricted maximum likelihood in Thoroughbred racehorses. Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, 114(1-6), 185-189. crossref(new window)

Park, J. H., Shin, J. I., & Yang, Y. A. (2011). A systematic review of hippotherapy intervention for the rehabilitation on children with disabilities in korea. Korean Aging-Friendly Industry Association, 3(1), 45-51.

Park, C. H., & Cheon, C. S. (2010). Economic ripple effect of raising racing horse. Korean Business Education Association, 73-85.

Pratt, G. W., & O'Connor, J. T. (1976). Force plate studies of equine biomechanics. American Journal of Veterinary, 37(11), 1151-1255.

Ryew, C. C. (2012). Kinematic analysis on the stabilization & correction effects of riding posture according to rider's skill levels in horse back riding. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 22(1), 083-094. crossref(new window)

Ryew, C. C., & Hyun, S. H. (2014). Kinematic analysis of the rider postural alignments according to the fitting of stirrups lengths during horse walk of high level rider. Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 24(4), 329-338. crossref(new window)

Sobczynska, M. (2006). Genetic correlations between racing performance at different racing distances in Thoroughbreds and Arab horses. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 51(12), 523-528.

Sobczynska, M. (2010). Genetic parameters of racing performance indices in polish Arabian horse. Livestock Science, 131(2), 245-249. crossref(new window)

Tavernier, A. (1991). Genetic evaluation of horses based on ranks in competitions. Genet. Genetics Selection Evolution, 23(1), 159-173. crossref(new window)

Tavernier. A. (1988). Advantage of BLUP animal model for breeding value estimation in horses. Livestock Production Science, 20(2), 149-160. crossref(new window)

Ueda, Y., Niki, Y., Yoshida, K., & Masumitsu, H. (1981). Force plate study of equine biomechanics: Floor reaction force of normal walking and trotting horses. Bull. Equine Research Institute. 18, 28-41.

Watanabe, Y. (1974). Performance rates of Thoroughbreds as a criterion of racing ability. Japanese Journal of Zootechnical Science, 45, 408-411.

Willham, R. L., & Wilson, D. E. (1991). Genetic prediction of racing performance in quater horse. Journal of Animal Science, 69(9), 3891-3894.