Analyses of Plantar Foot Pressure and Static Balance According to the Type of Insole in the Elderly

Title & Authors
Analyses of Plantar Foot Pressure and Static Balance According to the Type of Insole in the Elderly
Bae, Kang-Ho; Shin, Jin-Hyung; Lee, Joong-Sook; Yang, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Bom-Jin; Park, Seung-Bum;

Abstract
Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate plantar foot pressure and static balance according to the type of insole in the elderly. Methods: Thirteen elderly (mean age: $\small{67.08{\pm}2.25years}$, mean height: $\small{159.63{\pm}9.64cm}$, mean body weight: $\small{61.48{\pm}9.06kg}$) who had no previous injury experience in the lower limbs and a normal gait pattern participated in this study. Three models of insoles of the normal, 3D, and triangle types were selected for the test. The Pedar-X system and Pedar-X insoles, 3.3 km/h of walking speed, and a compilation of 20 steps walking stages were used to analyze foot-pressure distribution. Static balance test was conducted using Gaitview AFA-50, and balance (opening eyes, closing eyes) was inspected for 20 s. One-way ANOVA was conducted to test the significance of the results with the three insoles. p-value of less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean foot pressure under the forefoot regions was the lowest with the 3D insole during treadmill walking (p<.05). The mean value under the midfoot was the highest with the 3D insole (left: p<.05, right: p<.01). The mean value under the rearfoot was the lowest with the 3D insole (p<.001). The maximum foot pressure value under the foot regions was the lowest on both sides of the forefoot with the 3D insole. A statistically significant difference was seen only in the left foot (p<.01). The maximum value under the midfoot was the highest with the 3D insole (p<.001). No statistically significant difference was detected on the values under the rearfoot. In the case of vertical ground reaction force (GRF), statistically significant difference was seen only in the left side rearfoot (p<.01). However, static balance values (ENV, REC, RMS, Total Length, Sway velocity, and Length/ENV) did not show significant differences by the type of insole. Conclusion: These results show that functional insoles can decrease plantar pressure and GRF under the forefoot and rearfoot. Moreover, functional insoles can dislodge the overload of the rearfoot and forefoot to the midfoot. However, functional insoles do not affect the static balance in the elderly.
Keywords
Gait;Foot plantar pressure;Ground reaction force;Static balance;Elderly;
Language
English
Cited by
1.
The Effects of Pilates Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in the Elderly, Korean Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 2016, 26, 4, 397
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