Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Formation of Ni-W-P/Cu Electrodes for Silicon Solar Cells by Electroless Deposition
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Formation of Ni-W-P/Cu Electrodes for Silicon Solar Cells by Electroless Deposition
Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Duk Haeng; Jung, Woon Suk; Lim, Jae-Hong;
  PDF(new window)
Screen printing of commercially available Ag paste is the most widely used method for the front side metallization of Si solar cells. However, the metallization using Ag paste is expensive and needs high temperature annealing for reliable contact. Among many metallization schemes, Ni/Cu/Sn plating is one of the most promising methods due to low contact resistance and mass production, resulting in high efficiency and low production cost. Ni layer serves as a barrier which would prevent copper atoms from diffusion into the silicon substrate. However, Ni based schemes by electroless deposition usually have low thermal stability, and require high annealing process due to phosphorus content in the Ni based films. These problems can be resolved by adding W element in Ni-based film. In this study, Ni-W-P alloys were formed by electroless plating and properties of it such as sheet resistance, resistivity, specific contact resistivity, crystallinity, and morphology were investigated before and after annealing process by means of transmission line method (TLM), 4-point probe, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Silicon solar cells;Electroless plating;Ni-W-P;Specific contact resistance;
 Cited by
Kamp, M., et al., Economic evaluation of two-step metallization processes for silicon solar cells, Energy Procedia, 8 (2011) 558-564. crossref(new window)

L. E. Kyung, et al., Self-aligned Ni-P ohmic contact scheme for silicon solar cells by electroless deposition, Electronic Materials Letters, 8 (2012) 391-395. crossref(new window)

Hilali, Mohamed M., et al. Effect of glass frit chemistry on the physical and electrical properties of thick-film Ag contacts for silicon solar cells. Journal of electronic materials, 35 (2006) 2041-2047. crossref(new window)

L. J. Doo, H. Y. Kwon, and S. H. Lee., Analysis of front metal contact for plated Ni/Cu silicon solar cell. Electronic Materials Letters, 7 (2011) 349-352. crossref(new window)

Lauwers, Anne, et al., Ni based silicides for 45nm CMOS and beyond, Materials Science and Engineering B, 114 (2004) 29-41.

Bucher, E., et al., Work function and barrier heights of transition metal silicides, Applied Physics A, 40 (1986) 71-77. crossref(new window)

Brenner, A., and G. Riddel. Nickel plating by chemical reduction. US Patent 2,532,282, 1950.

Brenner, A., and G. Riddel. Nickel plating by chemical reduction, J. Res. Natl. Bur. Stand 37 (1946) 1. crossref(new window)

Mallory, G. O., and J. B. Hajdu., Electroless Plating Fundamentals and Applications, Noyes, (1990) 263.

L. M. Abrantes and J. P. Correia, On the Mechanism of Electroless Ni-P Plating, J. Electrochem. Soc., 141 (1994) 2356-2360. crossref(new window)

Wei-Yu Chen, et al., Crystallization behaviors and microhardness of sputtered Ni-P, Ni-P-Cr and Ni-P-W deposits on tool steel, Surface and Coatings Technology, 182 (2004) 85-91. crossref(new window)

H. F. Hsu, et al., Mechanism of immersion deposition of Ni-P films on Si (100) in an aqueous alkaline solution containing sodium hypophosphite, Thin Solid Films, 517 (2009) 4786-4791. crossref(new window)

D. B. Lewis and G. W. Marshall, Investigation into the structure of electrodeposited nickel-phosphorus alloy deposits, Surface and Coatings Technology, 78 (1996) 150-156. crossref(new window)

Liu Hong, et al., Comparative study of microstructure and corrosion resistance of electroless Ni-WP coatings treated by laser and furnace-annealing, Transactions of Nonferrous Metals Society of China, 20 (2010) 1024-1031. crossref(new window)

Liu. H., et al., Microstructure and corrosion performance of laser-annealed electroless Ni-W-P coatings, Surface and Coatings Technology, 204 (2010) 1549-1555. crossref(new window)

Yi-Ying Tsai, et al., Thermal stability and mechanical properties of Ni-W-P electroless deposits, Surface and Coatings Technology, 146 (2001) 502-507.

S. B. Antonelli, et al., Determining the role of W in suppressing crystallization of electroless Ni-W-P films, J. Electrochem. Soc., 153 (2006) J46-J49. crossref(new window)

E. Valova, et al., Comparison of the structure and chemical composition of crystalline and amorphous electroless Ni-WP coatings, J. Electrochem. Soc., 151 (2004) C385-C391. crossref(new window)

Ichiro Koiwa, Masahiko Usuda and Tetsuya Osaka, Effect of Heat-Treatment on the Structure and Resistivity of Electroless Ni-W-P Alloy Films, J. Electrochem. Soc., 135 (1988) 1222-1228. crossref(new window)

L. I. Stepanova, T. I. Bodrykh, and V. V. Sviridov, The effect of tungsten inclusion into nickel-phosphorus films on their thermal and barrier properties, Metal Finishing, 99 (2001) 50-58.

C. Boulord, et al., Electrical and structural characterization of electroless nickel-phosphorus contacts for silicon solar cell metallization, J. Electrochem. Soc., 157 (2010) H742-H745. crossref(new window)

N. Stavitski, et al., Systematic TLM measurements of NiSi and PtSi specific contact resistance to n- and p-type Si in a broad doping range, Electron Device Letters, IEEE 29 (2008) 378-381. crossref(new window)

M. Tinani, et al., In situ real-time studies of nickel silicide phase formation, Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology B, 19 (2001) 376-383.

D. K. Schroder, and D. L. Meier, Solar cell contact resistance-a review, Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on 31 (1984) 637-647. crossref(new window)

E. Bucher, et al., Work function and barrier heights of transition metal silicides, Applied Physics A, 40 (1986) 71-77. crossref(new window)

F. Deng, et al., Salicidation process using NiSi and its device application, Journal of applied physics, 81 (1997) 8047-8051. crossref(new window)

Mehul C. Raval, and Chetan S. Solanki, Review of Ni-Cu based front side metallization for c-Si solar cells, Journal of Solar Energy, 2013 (2013).

H. Kato, et al., Characterization of specific contact resistance on heavily phosphorus-doped diamond films, Diamond and Related Materials, 18 (2009) 782-785. crossref(new window)

L. Lewis, P. P. Maaskant and B. Corbett, On the specific contact resistance of metal contacts to p-type GaN, Semiconductor science and technology, 21 (2006) 1738. crossref(new window)

P. N. Vinod, et al., A novel method for the determination of the front contact resistance in large area screen printed silicon solar cells, Semiconductor science and technology, 15 (2000) 286. crossref(new window)

P. N. Vinod, Specific contact resistance measurements of the screen-printed Ag thick film contacts in the silicon solar cells by three-point probe methodology and TLM method, J. Mater. Sci. : Materials in Electronics, 22 (2011) 1248-1257.

P. N.Vinod, The electrical and microstructural properties of electroplated screen-printed Ag metal contacts in crystalline silicon solar cells, RSC Advances, 3 (2013) 14106-14113. crossref(new window)

H. H. Berger, Models for contacts to planar devices, Solid-State Electronics, 15 (1972) 145-158. crossref(new window)

Dieter K. Schoroder, Semiconductor material and device characterization 2nd ed, (1998), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Publication.