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Formation of Ni-W-P/Cu Electrodes for Silicon Solar Cells by Electroless Deposition
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 Title & Authors
Formation of Ni-W-P/Cu Electrodes for Silicon Solar Cells by Electroless Deposition
Kim, Eun Ju; Kim, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Duk Haeng; Jung, Woon Suk; Lim, Jae-Hong;
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Screen printing of commercially available Ag paste is the most widely used method for the front side metallization of Si solar cells. However, the metallization using Ag paste is expensive and needs high temperature annealing for reliable contact. Among many metallization schemes, Ni/Cu/Sn plating is one of the most promising methods due to low contact resistance and mass production, resulting in high efficiency and low production cost. Ni layer serves as a barrier which would prevent copper atoms from diffusion into the silicon substrate. However, Ni based schemes by electroless deposition usually have low thermal stability, and require high annealing process due to phosphorus content in the Ni based films. These problems can be resolved by adding W element in Ni-based film. In this study, Ni-W-P alloys were formed by electroless plating and properties of it such as sheet resistance, resistivity, specific contact resistivity, crystallinity, and morphology were investigated before and after annealing process by means of transmission line method (TLM), 4-point probe, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Silicon solar cells;Electroless plating;Ni-W-P;Specific contact resistance;
 Cited by
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