JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
The Relation between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and the Quantity of Cotinine in the Urine of School Children in Taif City, Saudi Arabia
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
The Relation between Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke and the Quantity of Cotinine in the Urine of School Children in Taif City, Saudi Arabia
Desouky, Dalia El Sayed; Elnemr, Gamal; Alnawawy, Ali; Taha, Azza Ali;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is a major public health problem for all ages. Despite the high prevalence of smoking among the Saudi population, there is limited information about levels of urinary cotinine in Saudi children exposed to SHS. The aim of the study was to assess the exposure of schoolchildren to ETS, and measure their urinary cotinine levels. Multistage cluster sampling was carried out, where schoolchildren from 4 schools were randomly chosen from primary schools in Taif city. A questionnaire including questions on SHS exposure and smoking rules in the residence were sent to students parents/guardians. Urine samples were taken and analyzed for total cotinine using chemiluminescent immunoassay. Of the studied children, 38.4% had a smoking father, 61.8%, 41.2% and 49.3% of them were exposed to ETS indoors, outdoors and both indoors and outdoors respectively. The mean urinary cotinine was significantly higher among children exposed to ETS compared to unexposed children. Urinary cotinine levels in children with both indoor and outdoor exposure was significantly higher compared with its level in children with single exposure. A significant positive correlation was found between urinary cotinine concentrations and the number of cigarette packs smoked by parents, and the number of smokers in the residence. The mean urinary cotinine level was significantly higher in children who reported no smoking rules at the residence.. The study revealed a high exposure of Saudi children to ETS. An antismoking media awareness campaign on the harmful effects of ETS should be carried out, in addition to family counseling programs targeted to parents to protect their children from ETS.
 Keywords
Environmental tobacco smoke;urinary cotinine;School children;Taif;Saudi Arabia;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Can a urine dipstick test be used to assess smoking status in patients undergoing planned orthopaedic surgery?: a prospective cohort study, The Bone & Joint Journal, 2016, 98-B, 10, 1418  crossref(new windwow)
2.
Environmental exposure and effects on health of children from a tobacco-producing region, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2017, 24, 3, 2851  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Abdul Salam A (2013). Population and Household Census, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2010: Facts and Figures. Center for Population Studies King Saud University Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Int J Humanit Soc Sci, 3, 258-63

2.
Abou El-Ellaa SS, Tawfika MA, El Bassuonib MA, Yahiaa MI (2014). Urinary cotinine level in passive smoker nondiabetic children of diabetic families. Menoufia Medical Journal, 27, 23-27 crossref(new window)

3.
Akl EA, Gunukula SK, Aleem S, et al (2011). The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking among the general and specific populations: a systematic review. BMC Public Health, 11, 244-56 crossref(new window)

4.
Al Moamary MS1, Al Ghobain MA, Al Shehri SN, et al (2012). The prevalence and characteristics of water-pipe smoking among high school students in Saudi Arabia. J Infect Public Health, 5, 159-68 crossref(new window)

5.
Albedah AM, Khalil MK, Khalil AA, Elolemy AT (2011). Use of the target group index survey to evaluate the cigarette smoking profile in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 32, 1055-9

6.
Al-Bedah AM, Qureshi NA, Al-Guhaimani HI, Basahi JA (2010). The Global Youth Tobacco Survey-2007: comparison with the global youth tobacco survey 2001-2002 in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 31, 1036-43

7.
Al-Mohamed HI, Amin TT (2010). Pattern and prevalence of smoking among students at King Faisal University, Al Hassa, Saudi Arabia. EMHJ, 16, 56-64

8.
Al-Otaibi AA, Ibrahim FB, Rampal L, Hassan SA, Normala Ibrahim N (2015). Prevalence of Tobacco Use and its Sociodemographic Determinants among Saudi Female School Adolescents in Jeddah. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 11, 39-48

9.
Al-Zalabani A H, Amer SM, Kasim KA, Alqabshawi RI, Abdallah AR (2015). Second-hand smoking among intermediate and secondary school students in madinah, Saudi Arabia. Biomed Res Int, 15, 17-24

10.
Amin TT, Amr MAM, Zaza BO, Suleman W (2010). Harm perception, attitudes and predictors of waterpipe (shisha) smoking among secondary school adolescents in al- hassa, Saudi Arabia. Asian Pacific J Cancer Prev, 11, 293-301

11.
Banoon SK (2014). Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) among pregnant women visiting primary health care (PHC) in Makah. International Journal of Medical Science and Public Health, 3, 672-8 crossref(new window)

12.
Bassiony M (2009). Smoking in Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J, 30, 876-81.

13.
Bernert JT, Pirkle JL, Xia Y, et al (2010). Urine concentrations of a tobaccospecific nitrosamine carcinogen in the U.S. population from secondhand smoke exposure. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers & Prev, 19, 2969-77. crossref(new window)

14.
Bono R1, Vincenti M, Schiliro T, et al (2005). Cotinine and N-(2-hydroxyethyl)valine as markers of passive exposure to tobacco smoke in children. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol, 15, 66 -73. crossref(new window)

15.
Boyaci H, Etiler N, Duman C, Basyigit I, Pala A (2006). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in school children: parent report and urine cotinine measures. Pediatrics International, 48, 382-9. crossref(new window)

16.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2005) Third national report on human exposure to environmental chemicals. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health. NCEH. Publication No. 05-0570

17.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Smoking & Tobacco Use: Health Effects of Secondhand Smoke. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health. ttp://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/health_effects

18.
Centre for disease control and prevention (CDC) (2006): Use of cigarettes and other tobacco products among students aged 13-15 years worldwide 1999-2005. MMWR Morb mortal Wkly Rep, 55, 553-6

19.
Gergen PJ, Fowler JA, Maurer KR, Davis WW, Overpeck MD (1998). The burden of environmental tobacco smoke exposure on the respiratory health of children 2 months through 5 years of age in the United States: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1988 to 1994. Pediatrics, 101, 8

20.
Goniewicz ML, Eisner MD, Eduardo L, et al (2011). Comparison of urine cotinine and the tobacco-specific nitrosamine metabolite 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-Pyridyl)-1-Butanol (NNAL) and Their Ratio to Discriminate Active From Passive Smoking. Nicotine Tob Res, 13, 202-8 crossref(new window)

21.
Hecht SS, Ye M, Carmella SG, et al (2001). Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in the urine of Elementary School-aged Children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 10, 1109-16.

22.
Isa MM, El-Sabbagh OI (2014). Alert Addiction among Young Students in Taif City in Western Area of Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 4, 2250-3153

23.
Jarallah J, Al-Rubeaan K, Al-Nuaim AR, Al-Ruhaily A, Kalantan K (1999). Prevalence and determinants of smoking in three regions of Saudi Arabia. Tob Control, 8, 53-56. crossref(new window)

24.
Jarvis MJ, Goddard E, Higgins V, et al (2000). Children's exposure to passive smoking in England since the 1980s: cotinine evidence from population surveys. BMJ, 321, 343-5. crossref(new window)

25.
Jurado D, Munoz C, Luna Jde D, Fernandez-Crehuet M (2004). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure in children: parental perception of smokiness at home and other factors associated with urinary cotinine in preschool children. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol, 14, 330-6. crossref(new window)

26.
Karadag B, Karakoc F, Ceran O, et al (2003). Does passive smoke exposure trigger acute asthma attack in children?. Allergol Immunopathol, 31, 318-23 crossref(new window)

27.
Kim HI, Lim Y, Lee S, et al (2004). Relationship between environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine levels in passive smokers at their residence. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol, 14, 65-70. crossref(new window)

28.
Lando HA, Hipple BJ, Muramoto M, et al (2010). Tobacco is a global pediatric concern. Bull World Health Organ, 88, 2-2. crossref(new window)

29.
Lund KE, Skrondal A, Vertio H, Helgason AR (1998). To what extent do parents strive to protect their children from environmental tobacco smoke in the Nordic countries? A population-based study. Tob Control, 7, 56-60 . crossref(new window)

30.
Mannino DM1, Caraballo R, Benowitz N, Repace J (2001). Predictors of cotinine levels in US children: data from the third national health and nutrition examination survey. Chest, 120, 718-24. crossref(new window)

31.
Mansour MAM, Youssef HAM, Al-Mawajdeh NA, Ayasreh I (2015). Awareness, attitude and practice of smoking among medical sciences& non-medical sciences students at Taif university: comparative study. International Journal of Science and Research, 4, 255-64

32.
Martins-Green M, Adhami N, Frankos M, et al (2014). Cigarette smoke toxins deposited on surfaces: implications for human health. PLOS ONE, 9, 86391 crossref(new window)

33.
Neergaard J, Singh P, Job J, Montgomery S (2007). Waterpipe smoking and nicotine exposure: a review of the current evidence. Nicotine Tob Res, 9, 987-94. crossref(new window)

34.
Oberg M, Jaakkola MS, Pruss-Ustun A, Schweizer C, Woodward A (2010). Second-hand smoke: Assessing the burden of disease at national and local levels. Tobacco free initiative, public health and the environment, Geneva. European Centre for Environment and Health, Rome. Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 18. http://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/publications/SHS.pdf

35.
Olivieri M1, Bodini A, Peroni DG, et al (2006). Passive smoking in asthmatic children: Effect of a 'smoke-free house' measured by urinary cotinine levels. Allergy Asthma Proc, 27, 350-3.

36.
Preston AM1, Ramos LJ, Calderon C, Sahai H (1997). Exposure of Puerto Rican children to environmental tobacco smoke. Prev Med, 26, 1-7. crossref(new window)

37.
Rashid M, Rashid H (2003). Passive maternal smoking and pregnancy outcome in a Saudi population. Saudi Med J, 3, 248-53.

38.
Reeves S, Bernstein I (2008). Effects of maternal tobacco-smoke exposure on fetal growth and neonatal size. Expert Rev Obstet Gynecol, 3, 719-30 crossref(new window)

39.
Salam AA, Elsegaey I, Khraif R, Al-Mutairi RA (2014). Population distribution and household conditions in Saudi Arabia: reflections from the 2010 Census. Center for Population Studies, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. SpringerPlus, 3, 530 crossref(new window)

40.
Salim EI1, Jazieh AR, Moore MA (2011). Lung cancer incidence in the arab league countries: risk factors and control. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 12, 17-34

41.
Schvartsman C, Farhat SCL, Schvartsman S, Saldiva PHN (2013). Parental smoking patterns and their association with wheezing in children. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 68, 934-9. crossref(new window)

42.
Seifert JA, Ross CA, Norris JM (2002). Validation of a fivequestion survey to assess a child's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Ann Epidemiol, 12, 273-7. crossref(new window)

43.
Shenkin JD, Broffitt B, Levy SM, Warren JJ (2004). The assotiation between environmental tobacco smoke and primary tooth caries. J Public Health Dent, 64, 184-6. crossref(new window)

44.
Stepanov I, Hecht SS, Duca G, Mardari I (2006). Uptake of the tobacco-specific lung carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone by moldovan children. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 15, 7-11 crossref(new window)

45.
Stosic1 L, Nikic D, Nikolic M, Milutinovic S, Stankovic A (2006). Determination of environmental tobacco smoking in schoolchildren with urine cotinine measurements. Medicine and Biology, 13, 119-22.

46.
Thomas JL, Guo H, Carmella SG, et al (2011). Metabolites of a tobacco-specific lung carcinogen in children exposed to secondhand or thirdhand tobacco smoke in their homes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 20, 1213-21. crossref(new window)

47.
Tutka P, Wielosz M, Zatonski W (2002). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and children health. Int J Occup Med Environ Health, 15, 325-35.

48.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2006). The Health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: a report of the surgeon general. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control, Center for Health Promotion and Education, Office on Smoking and Health.

49.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2007). Children and secondhand smoke exposure, the health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of health and human services, centers for disease control and prevention, coordinating center for health promotion, national center for chronic disease prevention and health promotion, office on smoking and health.

50.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (2012). Guidance, regulation, & compliance: harmful and potentially harmful constituents in tobacco products and tobacco smoke: established list. USDA.GOV. http://www.fda.gov/TobaccoProducts/GuidanceComplianceRegulatoryInformation/ucm297741.

51.
Vineis P, Airoldi L, Veglia F, et al (2005). Environmental tobacco smoke and risk of respiratory cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in former smokers and never smokers in the EPIC prospective study. BMJ, 330, 277-82. crossref(new window)

52.
Vogel RI, Carmella SG, Stepanov I, Hatsukami DK, Hecht SS (2011). The ratio of a urinary tobacco-specific lung carcinogen metabolite to cotinine is significantly higher in passive than in active smokers. Biomarkers, 16,491-7 crossref(new window)

53.
Warren CW, Asma S, Lee J, Lea V, Mackay J (2009). Global tobacco surveillance system: The GTSS Atlas.

54.
World Health Organization (2011). Report on the global tobacco epidemic: country profile Saudi Arabia; 2011. http://www.who.int/tobacco/

55.
World Health Organization (2013). WHO report on the Global Tobacco Epidemic, 2013, Country profile, Saudi Arabia. http://www.who.int/tobacco/surveillance/policy/country_profile/sau.pdf