Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as In Vitro Model to Evaluate Genomic Instability Caused by Low Dose Radiation
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes as In Vitro Model to Evaluate Genomic Instability Caused by Low Dose Radiation
Tewari, Shikha; Khan, Kainat; Husain, Nuzhat; Rastogi, Madhup; Mishra, Surendra P; Srivastav, Anoop K;
  PDF(new window)
Diagnostic and therapeutic radiation fields are planned so as to reduce side-effects while maximising the dose to site but effects on healthy tissues are inevitable. Radiation causes strand breaks in DNA of exposed cells which can lead to chromosomal aberrations and cause malfunction and cell death. Several researchers have highlighted the damaging effects of high dose radiation but still there is a lacuna in identifying damage due to low dose radiation used for diagnostic purposes. Blood is an easy resource to study genotoxicity and to estimate the effects of radiation. The micronucleus assay and chromosomal aberration can indicate genetic damage and our present aim was to establish these with lymphocytes in an in vitro model to predict the immediate effects low dose radiation. Blood was collected from healthy individuals and divided into 6 groups with increasing radiation dose i.e., 0Gy, 0.10Gy, 0.25Gy, 0.50Gy, 1Gy and 2Gy. The samples were irradiated in duplicates using a LINAC in the radiation oncology department. Standard protocols were applied for chromosomal aberration and micronucleus assays. Metaphases were stained in Giemsa and 200 were scored per sample for the detection of dicentric or acentric forms. For micronuclei detection, 200 metaphases. Giemsa stained binucleate cells per sample were analysed for any abnormality. The micronuclei (MN) frequency was increased in cells exposed to the entire range of doses (0.1-2Gy) delivered. Controls showed minimal MN formation () with triple MN () frequency at the lowest dose. MN formation increased exponentially with the radiation dose thereafter with a maximum at 2Gy. Significantly elevated numbers of dicentric chromosomes were also observed, even at doses of 0.1-0.5Gy, compared to controls, and acentric chromosomes were apparent at 2Gy. In conclusion we can state that lymphocytes can be effectively used to study direct effect of low dose radiation.
DNA damage;low dose radiation;CBMN assay;chromosomal aberrations;in vitro;
 Cited by
Active caspase-3 expression levels as bioindicator of individual radiosensitivity, Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências, 2017, 89, 1 suppl, 649  crossref(new windwow)
Brenner D, Elliston C, Hall E, et al (2001). Estimated Risks of radiation induced fatal cancer from paediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol, 176, 289-96. crossref(new window)

Brooks AL, Khan MA, Jostes RF, et al (1993). Metaphase chromosomal aberration as markers of radiation exposure and dose. J Toxicol Environ Health, 40, 277-88. crossref(new window)

Cardoso RS, Takahashi-H S, Peitl P Jr, et al (2001). Evaluation of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei, and sister chromatid exchanges in hospital workers chronically exposed to ionizing radiation. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen, 21, 431-9. crossref(new window)

Fenech M. (2000) The in vitro micronucleus technique. Mutat Res, 455, 81-95. crossref(new window)

George K, Willingham V, Wu H, et al (2002). Chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes induced by 250 MeV protons: effects of dose, dose rate and shielding. Adv Space Res, 30, 891-9. crossref(new window)

Gonzalez AB, Mahesh M, Kim KP, et al (2009). Projected Cancer Risks From Computed Tomographic Scans Performed in the United States in 2007. Arch Intern Med, 169, 2071-7. crossref(new window)

He Y, Gong Y, Lin J, et al (2013). Ionizing radiation-induced ${\gamma}$-H2AX activity in whole blood culture and the risk of lung cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 22, 443-51. crossref(new window)

Johnson JN, Hornik CP, Li JS, et al (2014). Cumulative radiation exposure and cancer risk estimation in children with heart disease. Circulation, 130, 161-7. crossref(new window)

Miglioretti DL, Johnson E, Williams A, et al (2013). The use of computed tomography in pediatrics and the associated radiation exposure and estimated cancer risk. JAMA Pediatr, 167, 700-7. crossref(new window)

Milacic S. (2009) Chromosomal Aberrations after exposure to low doses of ionising radiation. J BUON, 14, 641-6.

M'kacher R, E Maalouf , Terzoudi G, et al, (2015) Detection and automated scoring of dicentric chromosomes in nonstimulated lymphocyte prematurely condensed chromosomes after telomere and centromere staining. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 91, 640-9. crossref(new window)

Moorhead PS, Nowell PC, Mellman WJ, (1960). Chromosome preparations of leukocytes cultured from human peripheral blood. Exp Cell Res, 20, 613-6. crossref(new window)

Nguyen PK, Wu JC (2011). Radiation exposure from imaging tests: is there an increased cancer risk? Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther, 9, 177-83. crossref(new window)

Nikjoo H.. (2003). Radiation track and DNA damage. Iran J Radiat Res, 1, 3-16.

Pearce MS, Salotti JA, Little MP, et al (2012). Radiation exposure from CT scans in childhood and subsequent risk of leukaemia and brain tumours: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet, 380, 499-505. crossref(new window)

Sodickson A, Baeyers P F, Andriole K P, et al.(2009). Recurrent CT, Cumulative Radiation Exposure and associated radiation induced cancer risks from CT of adults. Radiol, 251, 175-84. crossref(new window)