JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma cell line SCC-9 in Vitro
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
 Title & Authors
Anti-Cancer Effects of Imperata cylindrica Leaf Extract on Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma cell line SCC-9 in Vitro
Keshava, Rohini; Muniyappa, Nagesh; Gope, Rajalakshmi; Ramaswamaiah, Ananthanarayana Saligrama;
  PDF(new window)
 Abstract
Imperata cylindrica, a tall tufted grass which has multiple pharmacological applications is one of the key ingredients in various traditional medicinal formula used in India. Previous reports have shown that I. cylindrica plant extract inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in various cancer cell lines. To our knowledge, no studies have been published on the effect of I. cylindrica leaf extract on human oral cancers. The present study was undertaken in order to evaluate the anticancer properties of the leaf extract of I. cylindrica using an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line SCC-9 as an in vitro model system. A methanol extract from dried leaves of I. cylindrica (ICL) was prepared by standard procedures. Effects of the ICL extract on the morphology of SCC-9 cells was visualized by microscopy. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT assay. Effects of the ICL extract on colony forming ability of SCC-9 cells was evaluated using clonogenic assay. Cell cycle analysis was performed by flow cytometry and induction of apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation assay. The ICL extract treatment caused cytotoxicity and induced cell death in vitro in SCC-9 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This treatment also significantly reduced the clonogenic potential and inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle in the G2/M phase. Furthermore, DNA fragmentation assays showed that the observed cell death was caused by apoptosis. This is the first report showing the anticancer activity of the methanol extracts from the leaves of I. cylindrica in human oral cancer cell line. Our data indicates that ICL extract could be considered as one of the lead compounds for the formulation of anticancer therapeutic agents to treat/manage human oral cancers. The natural abundance of I. cylindrica and its wide geographic distribution could render it one of the primary resource materials for preparation of anticancer therapeutic agents.
 Keywords
Oral cancer;SCC-9 cells;Imperata cylindrica;cell cycle arrest;apoptosis;DNA fragmentation;
 Language
English
 Cited by
1.
Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets, Frontiers in Pharmacology, 2017, 8, 1663-9812  crossref(new windwow)
 References
1.
Amin AR, Kucuk O, Khuri FR, Shin DM, (2009). Perspectives for cancer prevention with natural compounds. J Clin Oncol, 27, 2712-25. crossref(new window)

2.
Anantharaman D, Gheit T, Waterboer T, et al (2013). Human papillomavirus infections and upper aero-digestive tract cancers: the ARCAGE study. J Natl Cancer Inst, 105, 536-45. crossref(new window)

3.
Arora S, Tandon S (2015). DNA fragmentation and cell cycle arrest: a hallmark of apoptosis induced by Ruta graveolens in human colon cancer cells. Homeopathy, 104, 36-47. crossref(new window)

4.
Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India, Part 1, Vol. V, First Edition, (2006). Ministry of health and family welfare, department of ayurveda, yoga and naturopathy, unani, siddha and homoeopathy (AYUSH), Government of India, New Delhi.

5.
Chatelain K, Phippen S, McCabe J, et al (2011). Cranberry and grape seed extracts inhibit the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinomas. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2011, 467691.

6.
Chen M, Huang J, Yang X, et al (2012). Serum starvation induced cell cycle synchronization facilitates human somatic cells reprogramming. PLoS One, 7, 28203. crossref(new window)

7.
de Camargo-Cancela M, Voti L, Guerra-Yi M, et al (2010). Oral cavity cancer in developed and in developing countries: population-based incidence. Head Neck, 32, 357-67.

8.
Dikshit R, Gupta PC, Ramasundarahettige C, et al (2012). Cancer mortality in India: a nationally representative survey. Lancet, 379, 1807-16. crossref(new window)

9.
Doan, D.D., Nguyen, N.H., Doan, H.K., Nguyen, T.L., Phan, T.S., van Dau, N., Grabe, M., Johansson R, Lindgren G, Stjernstrom NE, (1992). Studies on the individual and combined diuretic effects of four Vietnamese traditional herbal remedies (Zea mays, Imperata cylindrica, Plantago major and Orthosiphon stamineus). J Ethnopharmacol, 36, 225-31. crossref(new window)

10.
Ferlay J SI, Ervik M, Dikshit R, et al (2013). GLOBOCAN 2012 v1.0, Cancer Incidence and Mortality Worldwide. [Online]. lyon, france: international agency for research on cancer.

11.
Forman D, Bray F, Brewster DH, et al (2014). Cancer incidence in five continents. Vol X [Online]. Lyon, France: IARC scientific publication, No 164.

12.
Franken NA, Rodermond HM, Stap J, et al (2006). Clonogenic assay of cells in vitro. Nat Protoc, 1, 2315-9. crossref(new window)

13.
Fulda S (2010). Modulation of apoptosis by natural products for cancer therapy. Planta Med, 76, 1075-9. crossref(new window)

14.
Guruprasad KP, Mascarenhas R, Gopinath PM, et al (2010). Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities. J Ayurveda Integr Med, 1, 40-4. crossref(new window)

15.
Harborne JB (1998). Phytochemical methods- a guide to modern techniques of plant analysis, springer science & business media.

16.
Hengartner MO (2000). The biochemistry of apoptosis. Nature, 407, 770-6. crossref(new window)

17.
IARC. (2012). Personal Habits and Indoor Combustions [Online]. Lyon, France: IARC.

18.
Jayalakshmi S, Patra A, Lal VK, Ghosh, A K (2010). Pharmacognostical standardization of roots of Imperata cylindrica Linn (Poaceae). J Pharm Sci Res, 2, 5.

19.
Katz D, Ito E, Lau KS, et al (2008). Increased efficiency for performing colony formation assays in 96-well plates: novel applications to combination therapies and high-throughput screening. Biotechniques, 44, ix-xiv.

20.
King M, Chatelain K, Farris D, et al (2007). Oral squamous cell carcinoma proliferative phenotype is modulated by proanthocyanidins: a potential prevention and treatment alternative for oral cancer. BMC Complement Altern Med, 7, 22. crossref(new window)

21.
Krishna Rao SV, Mejia G, Roberts-Thomson K, et al (2013). Epidemiology of oral cancer in Asia in the past decade--an update (2000-2012). Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 14, 5567-77. crossref(new window)

22.
Kuete V, Krusche B, Youns M, et al (2011). Cytotoxicity of some Cameroonian spices and selected medicinal plant extracts. J Ethnopharmacol, 134, 803-12. crossref(new window)

23.
Kuete V, Sandjo LP, Wiench B, et al (2013). Cytotoxicity and modes of action of four Cameroonian dietary spices ethno-medically used to treat cancers: Echinops giganteus, Xylopia aethiopica, Imperata cylindrica and Piper capense. J Ethnopharmacol, 149, 245-53. crossref(new window)

24.
Mitra R, Devi BI, Gope ML, et al (2012). Sodium butyrate modulates pRb phosphorylation and induces cell death in human vestibular schwannomas in vitro. Indian J Exp Biol, 50, 19-27.

25.
More Y, D'Cruz AK (2013). Oral cancer: review of current management strategies. Natl Med J India, 26, 152-8.

26.
Mosmann T (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. J Immunol Methods, 65, 55-63. crossref(new window)

27.
Nair SV, Hettihewa M, Rupasinghe HP (2014). Apoptotic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by methanol leaf extract of Costus speciosus. Biomed Res Int, 2014, 637098.

28.
Newman DJ, Cragg GM (2007). Natural products as sources of new drugs over the last 25 years. J Nat Prod, 70, 461-77. crossref(new window)

29.
Pagliacci MC, Smacchia M, Migliorati G, et al (1994). Growthinhibitory effects of the natural phyto-oestrogen genistein in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Eur J Cancer, 30, 1675-82. crossref(new window)

30.
Parvathy NG, Padma R, Renjith V, Rahate KP, Saranya TS (2012). Phytochemical screening and anthelmintic activity of methanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci, 4, 3.

31.
Pinilla V, Luu B (1999). Isolation and partial characterization of immunostimulating polysaccharides from Imperata cylindrica. Planta Med, 65, 549-52. crossref(new window)

32.
Pragya T, Verma U, Singh R, Joshi PK, Rout OP, (2015). Rasayana' herbs used in ayurveda -a review. World J Pharmacy Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8.

33.
Qi F, Li A, Inagaki Y, et al (2010). Chinese herbal medicines as adjuvant treatment during chemo- or radio-therapy for cancer. Biosci Trends, 4, 297-307.

34.
Rafehi H, Orlowski C, Georgiadis GT, et al (2011). Clonogenic assay: adherent cells. J Vis Exp.

35.
Sankaranarayanan R, Ramadas K, Thomas G, et al (2005). Effect of screening on oral cancer mortality in Kerala, India: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet, 365, 1927-33. crossref(new window)

36.
Shah NT, Pandya TN, Sharma PP, Patel BR, Acharya R, (2012). Mootrala Karma of Kusha [Imperata cylindrica Beauv.] and Darbha [Desmostachya bipinnata Stapf.] - A comparative study. Ayu, 33, 387-90. crossref(new window)

37.
Saraswathy M, Gong S (2013). Different strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer. Biotechnol Adv, 31, 1397- 407. crossref(new window)

38.
Sushama B, Nishteswar K (2014). Review of anti-oxidant herbal drugs w.s.r to madhuraskandha (charakasamhita). Int J Ayurvedic Herbal Med, 4, 1480-93.

39.
Thorat RV, Panse NS, Budukh AM, et al (2009). Prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-dependent cancers in males in the rural cancer registry population at Barshi, India. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 10, 1167-70.

40.
Tsai YL, Chiu CC, Yi-Fu Chen J, et al (2012). Cytotoxic effects of Echinacea purpurea flower extracts and cichoric acid on human colon cancer cells through induction of apoptosis. J Ethnopharmacol, 143, 914-9. crossref(new window)

41.
Wyllie AH (1980). Glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis is associated with endogenous endonuclease activation. Nature, 284, 555-6. crossref(new window)

42.
Xavier CP, Lima CF, Preto A, et al (2009). Luteolin, quercetin and ursolic acid are potent inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of apoptosis in both KRAS and BRAF mutated human colorectal cancer cells. Cancer Lett, 281, 162-70. crossref(new window)

43.
Yoon JS, Lee MK, Sung SH, et al (2006). Neuroprotective 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of Imperata cylindrica. J Nat Prod, 69, 290-1. crossref(new window)